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A hardcore predicate for all oneway functions
 In Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 1989
"... Abstract rity of f. In fact, for inputs (to f*) of practical size, the pieces effected by f are so small A central tool in constructing pseudorandom that f can be inverted (and the “hardcore” generators, secure encryption functions, and bit computed) by exhaustive search. in other areas are “hardc ..."
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Cited by 451 (6 self)
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Abstract rity of f. In fact, for inputs (to f*) of practical size, the pieces effected by f are so small A central tool in constructing pseudorandom that f can be inverted (and the “hardcore” generators, secure encryption functions, and bit computed) by exhaustive search. in other areas are “hardcore ” predicates b In this paper we show that every oneof functions (permutations) f, discovered in way function, padded to the form f(p,z) = [Blum Micali $21. Such b ( 5) cannot be effi (P,9(X)), llPl / = 11z//, has bY itself a hardcore ciently guessed (substantially better than SO predicate of the same (within a polynomial) 50) given only f(z). Both b, f are computable security. Namely, we prove a conjecture of in polynomial time. [Levin 87, sec. 5.6.21 that the sca1a.r product [Yao 821 transforms any oneway function of boolean vectors p, x is a hardcore of every f into a more complicated one, f*, which has oneway function f(p, x) = (p,g(x)). The rea hardcore predicate. The construction ap sult extends to multiple (up to the logarithm plies the original f to many small pieces of of security) such bits and to any distribution the input to f * just to get one “hardcore ” on the z’s for which f is hard to invert.
Simple Constructions of Almost kwise Independent Random Variables
, 1992
"... We present three alternative simple constructions of small probability spaces on n bits for which any k bits are almost independent. The number of bits used to specify a point in the sample space is (2 + o(1))(log log n + k/2 + log k + log 1 ɛ), where ɛ is the statistical difference between the dist ..."
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Cited by 324 (44 self)
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We present three alternative simple constructions of small probability spaces on n bits for which any k bits are almost independent. The number of bits used to specify a point in the sample space is (2 + o(1))(log log n + k/2 + log k + log 1 ɛ), where ɛ is the statistical difference between the distribution induced on any k bit locations and the uniform distribution. This is asymptotically comparable to the construction recently presented by Naor and Naor (our size bound is better as long as ɛ < 1/(k log n)). An additional advantage of our constructions is their simplicity.
Simultaneous hardcore bits and cryptography against memory attacks
 IN TCC
, 2009
"... This paper considers two questions in cryptography. Cryptography Secure Against Memory Attacks. A particularly devastating sidechannel attack against cryptosystems, termed the “memory attack”, was proposed recently. In this attack, a significant fraction of the bits of a secret key of a cryptograp ..."
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Cited by 118 (11 self)
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This paper considers two questions in cryptography. Cryptography Secure Against Memory Attacks. A particularly devastating sidechannel attack against cryptosystems, termed the “memory attack”, was proposed recently. In this attack, a significant fraction of the bits of a secret key of a cryptographic algorithm can be measured by an adversary if the secret key is ever stored in a part of memory which can be accessed even after power has been turned off for a short amount of time. Such an attack has been shown to completely compromise the security of various cryptosystems in use, including the RSA cryptosystem and AES. We show that the publickey encryption scheme of Regev (STOC 2005), and the identitybased encryption scheme of Gentry, Peikert and Vaikuntanathan (STOC 2008) are remarkably robust against memory attacks where the adversary can measure a large fraction of the bits of the secretkey, or more generally, can compute an arbitrary function of the secretkey of bounded output length. This is done without increasing the size of the secretkey, and without introducing any
Learning polynomials with queries: The highly noisy case
, 1995
"... Given a function f mapping nvariate inputs from a finite Kearns et. al. [21] (see also [27, 28, 22]). In the setting of agfieldFintoF, we consider the task of reconstructing a list nostic learning, the learner is to make no assumptions regarding of allnvariate degreedpolynomials which agree withf ..."
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Cited by 96 (18 self)
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Given a function f mapping nvariate inputs from a finite Kearns et. al. [21] (see also [27, 28, 22]). In the setting of agfieldFintoF, we consider the task of reconstructing a list nostic learning, the learner is to make no assumptions regarding of allnvariate degreedpolynomials which agree withfon a the natural phenomena underlying the input/output relationship tiny but nonnegligible fraction, , of the input space. We give a of the function, and the goal of the learner is to come up with a randomized algorithm for solving this task which accessesfas a simple explanation which best fits the examples. Therefore the black box and runs in time polynomial in1;nand exponential in best explanation may account for only part of the phenomena. d, provided is(pd=jFj). For the special case whend=1, In some situations, when the phenomena appears very irregular, we solve this problem for jFj>0. In this case the providing an explanation which fits only part of it is better than nothing. Interestingly, Kearns et. al. did not consider the use of running time of our algorithm is bounded by a polynomial queries (but rather examples drawn from an arbitrary distribuand exponential ind. Our algorithm generalizes a previously tion) as they were skeptical that queries could be of any help. known algorithm, due to Goldreich and Levin, that solves this We show that queries do seem to help (see below). task for the case whenF=GF(2)(andd=1).
Unconditional Sender and Recipient Untraceability in spite of Active Attacks
, 1989
"... . A protocol is described which allows to send and receive messages anonymously using an arbitrary communication network, and it is proved to be unconditionally secure. This improves a result by DAVID CHAUM: The DCnet guarantees the same, but on the assumption of a reliable broadcast network. Since ..."
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Cited by 48 (1 self)
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. A protocol is described which allows to send and receive messages anonymously using an arbitrary communication network, and it is proved to be unconditionally secure. This improves a result by DAVID CHAUM: The DCnet guarantees the same, but on the assumption of a reliable broadcast network. Since unconditionally secure Byzantine Agreement cannot be achieved, such a reliable broadcast network cannot be realized by algorithmic means. The solution proposed here, the DC + net, uses the DCnet, but replaces the reliable broadcast network by a failstop one. By choosing the keys necessary for the DCnet dependently on the previously broadcast messages, the failstop broadcast can be achieved unconditionally secure and without increasing the complexity of the DCnet significantly, using an arbitrary communication network. Categories and Subject Descriptors: C.2.0 [ComputerCommunication Networks]: General  Security and protection, E.3 [Data Encryption], F.2.1 [Analysis of Algorithms...
The discrete logarithm modulo a composite hides O(n) bits
 JOURNAL OF COMPUTER AND SYSTEM SCIENCES
, 1993
"... In this paper we consider the oneway function fg�N(X) =g X (modN), where N is a Blum integer. We prove that under the commonly assumed intractability of factoring Blum integers, all its bits are individually hard, and the lower as well as upper halves of them are simultaneously hard. As a result, f ..."
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Cited by 33 (1 self)
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In this paper we consider the oneway function fg�N(X) =g X (modN), where N is a Blum integer. We prove that under the commonly assumed intractability of factoring Blum integers, all its bits are individually hard, and the lower as well as upper halves of them are simultaneously hard. As a result, fg�N can be used in efficient pseudorandom bit generators and multibit commitment schemes, where messages can be drawn according to arbitrary probability distributions.
Energy aware computing through probabilistic switching: A study of limits
 Computers, IEEE Transactions on
, 2005
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An Efficient Discrete Log Pseudo Random Generator
 Crypto ’98, LNCS No. 1462
, 1998
"... Abstract. The exponentiation function in a finite field of order p (a prime number) is believed to be a oneway function. It is well known that O(log log p) bits are simultaneously hard for this function. We consider a special case of this problem, the discrete logarithm with short exponents, which ..."
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Cited by 30 (1 self)
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Abstract. The exponentiation function in a finite field of order p (a prime number) is believed to be a oneway function. It is well known that O(log log p) bits are simultaneously hard for this function. We consider a special case of this problem, the discrete logarithm with short exponents, which is also believed to be hard to compute. Under this intractibility assumption we show that discrete exponentiation modulo a prime p can hide n−ω(log n) bits (n = dlog pe and p = 2q+1, where q is also a prime). We prove simultaneous security by showing that any information about the n−ω(log n) bits can be used to discover the discrete log of gs mod p where s has ω(log n) bits. For all practical purposes, the size of s can be a constant c bits. This leads to a very efficient pseudorandom number generator which produces n − c bits per iteration. For example, when n = 1024 bits and c = 128 bits our pseudorandom number generator produces a little less than 900 bits per exponentiation. 1
On the Security of Modular Exponentiation with Application to the Construction of Pseudorandom Generators
 Journal of Cryptology
, 2000
"... Assuming the inractability of factoring, we show that the output of the exponentiation modulo a composite function fN;g (x) = g x mod N (where N = P \Delta Q) is pseudorandom, even when its input is restricted to be half the size. This result is equivalent to the simultaneous hardness of the upper ..."
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Cited by 21 (0 self)
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Assuming the inractability of factoring, we show that the output of the exponentiation modulo a composite function fN;g (x) = g x mod N (where N = P \Delta Q) is pseudorandom, even when its input is restricted to be half the size. This result is equivalent to the simultaneous hardness of the upper half of the bits of fN;g , proven by Hastad, Schrift and Shamir. Yet, we supply a different proof that is significantly simpler than the original one. In addition, we suggest a pseudorandom generator which is more efficient than all previously known factoring based pseudorandom generators. Keywords: Modular exponentiation, discrete logarithm, hard core predicates, simultaneous security, pseudorandom generator, factoring assumption. This writeup is based on the Master Thesis of the second author (supervised by the first author). 0 1 Introduction Oneway functions play an extremely important role in modern cryptography. Loosely speaking, these are functions which are easy to evaluate bu...
Three xorlemmas  an exposition
 Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC
, 1995
"... Abstract. We provide an exposition of three lemmas that relate general properties of distributions over bit strings to the exclusiveor (xor) of values of certain bit locations. The first XORLemma, commonly attributed to Umesh Vazirani (1986), relates the statistical distance of a distribution from ..."
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Cited by 19 (2 self)
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Abstract. We provide an exposition of three lemmas that relate general properties of distributions over bit strings to the exclusiveor (xor) of values of certain bit locations. The first XORLemma, commonly attributed to Umesh Vazirani (1986), relates the statistical distance of a distribution from the uniform distribution over bit strings to the maximum bias of the xor of certain bit positions. The second XORLemma, due to Umesh and Vijay Vazirani (19th STOC, 1987), is a computational analogue of the first. It relates the pseudorandomness of a distribution to the difficulty of predicting the xor of bits in particular or random positions. The third Lemma, due to Goldreich and Levin (21st STOC, 1989), relates the difficulty of retrieving a string and the unpredictability of the xor of random bit positions. The most notable XOR Lemma – that is the socalled Yao XOR Lemma – is not discussed here. We focus on the proofs of the aforementioned three lemma. Our exposition deviates from the original proofs, yielding proofs that are believed to be simpler, of wider applicability, and establishing somewhat stronger quantitative results. Credits for these improved proofs are due to several researchers.