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The fundamental properties of natural numbers
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1989
"... Summary. Some fundamental properties of addition, multiplication, order relations, exact division, the remainder, divisibility, the least common multiple, the greatest common divisor are presented. A proof of Euclid algorithm is also given. MML Identifier:NAT_1. WWW:http://mizar.org/JFM/Vol1/nat_1.h ..."
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Cited by 642 (72 self)
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Summary. Some fundamental properties of addition, multiplication, order relations, exact division, the remainder, divisibility, the least common multiple, the greatest common divisor are presented. A proof of Euclid algorithm is also given. MML Identifier:NAT_1. WWW:http://mizar.org/JFM/Vol1/nat_1.html The articles [4], [6], [1], [2], [5], and [3] provide the notation and terminology for this paper. A natural number is an element of N. For simplicity, we use the following convention: x is a real number, k, l, m, n are natural numbers, h, i, j are natural numbers, and X is a subset of R. The following proposition is true (2) 1 For every X such that 0 ∈ X and for every x such that x ∈ X holds x+1 ∈ X and for every k holds k ∈ X. Let n, k be natural numbers. Then n+k is a natural number. Let n, k be natural numbers. Note that n+k is natural. In this article we present several logical schemes. The scheme Ind concerns a unary predicate P, and states that: For every natural number k holdsP[k] provided the parameters satisfy the following conditions: • P[0], and • For every natural number k such thatP[k] holdsP[k+1]. The scheme Nat Ind concerns a unary predicateP, and states that: For every natural number k holdsP[k] provided the following conditions are satisfied: • P[0], and • For every natural number k such thatP[k] holdsP[k+1]. Let n, k be natural numbers. Then n · k is a natural number. Let n, k be natural numbers. Observe that n · k is natural. Next we state several propositions: (18) 2 0 ≤ i. (19) If 0 � = i, then 0 < i. (20) If i ≤ j, then i · h ≤ j · h. 1 The proposition (1) has been removed. 2 The propositions (3)–(17) have been removed.
Basic Properties of Real Numbers
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1989
"... this paper. A real number is an element of R ..."
Finite sets
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1989
"... Summary. The article contains the definition of a finite set based on the notion of finite sequence. Some theorems about properties of finite sets and finite families of sets are proved. ..."
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Cited by 311 (6 self)
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Summary. The article contains the definition of a finite set based on the notion of finite sequence. Some theorems about properties of finite sets and finite families of sets are proved.
Finite Sequences and Tuples of Elements of a Nonempty Sets
, 1990
"... this article is the definition of tuples. The element of a set of all sequences of the length n of D is called a tuple of a nonempty set D and it is denoted by element of D ..."
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Cited by 295 (7 self)
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this article is the definition of tuples. The element of a set of all sequences of the length n of D is called a tuple of a nonempty set D and it is denoted by element of D
Pigeon hole principle
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1990
"... Summary. We introduce the notion of a predicate that states that a function is onetoone at a given element of its domain (i.e. counterimage of image of the element is equal to its singleton). We also introduce some rather technical functors concerning finite sequences: the lowest index of the given ..."
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Cited by 262 (13 self)
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Summary. We introduce the notion of a predicate that states that a function is onetoone at a given element of its domain (i.e. counterimage of image of the element is equal to its singleton). We also introduce some rather technical functors concerning finite sequences: the lowest index of the given element of the range of the finite sequence, the substring preceding (and succeeding) the first occurrence of given element of the range. At the end of the article we prove the pigeon hole principle.
Basis of Real Linear Space
, 1990
"... this paper. For simplicity, we follow the rules: x is a set, a, b are real numbers, V is a real linear space, W 1 , W 2 , W 3 are subspaces of V , v, v 1 , v 2 are vectors of V , A, B are subsets of the carrier of V , L, L 1 , L 2 are linear combinations of V , l is a linear combination of A, F , G ..."
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Cited by 251 (21 self)
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this paper. For simplicity, we follow the rules: x is a set, a, b are real numbers, V is a real linear space, W 1 , W 2 , W 3 are subspaces of V , v, v 1 , v 2 are vectors of V , A, B are subsets of the carrier of V , L, L 1 , L 2 are linear combinations of V , l is a linear combination of A, F , G
The Reflection Theorem
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1990
"... this paper (and in another Mizar articles) we work in TarskiGrothendieck (TG) theory (see [17]) which ensures the existence of sets that have properties like universal class (i.e. this theory is stronger than MK). The sets are introduced in [15] and some concepts of MK are modeled. The concepts are ..."
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Cited by 230 (50 self)
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this paper (and in another Mizar articles) we work in TarskiGrothendieck (TG) theory (see [17]) which ensures the existence of sets that have properties like universal class (i.e. this theory is stronger than MK). The sets are introduced in [15] and some concepts of MK are modeled. The concepts are: the class On of all ordinal numbers belonging to the universe, subclasses, transfinite sequences of nonempty elements of universe, etc. The reflection theorem states that if A ¸ is an increasing and continuous transfinite sequence of nonempty sets and class A =
Manysorted sets
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1993
"... Summary. The article deals with parameterized families of sets. When treated in a similar way as sets (due to systematic overloading notation used for sets) they are called many sorted sets. For instance, if x and X are two manysorted sets (with the same set of indices I) then relation x ∈ X is def ..."
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Cited by 195 (23 self)
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Summary. The article deals with parameterized families of sets. When treated in a similar way as sets (due to systematic overloading notation used for sets) they are called many sorted sets. For instance, if x and X are two manysorted sets (with the same set of indices I) then relation x ∈ X is defined as ∀i∈Ixi ∈ Xi. I was prompted by a remark in a paper by Tarlecki and Wirsing: “Throughout the paper we deal with manysorted sets, functions, relations etc.... We feel free to use any standard settheoretic notation without explicit use of indices ” [6, p. 97]. The aim of this work was to check the feasibility of such approach in Mizar. It works. Let us observe some peculiarities: empty set (i.e. the many sorted set with empty set of indices) belongs to itself (theorem 133), we get two different inclusions X ⊆ Y iff ∀i∈IXi ⊆ Yi and X ⊑ Y iff ∀xx ∈ X ⇒ x ∈ Y equivalent only for sets that yield non empty values. Therefore the care is advised.
The sum and product of finite sequences of real numbers
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1990
"... Summary. Some operations on the set of ntuples of real numbers are introduced. Addition, difference of such ntuples, complement of a ntuple and multiplication of these by real numbers are defined. In these definitions more general properties of binary operations applied to finite sequences from [ ..."
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Cited by 121 (2 self)
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Summary. Some operations on the set of ntuples of real numbers are introduced. Addition, difference of such ntuples, complement of a ntuple and multiplication of these by real numbers are defined. In these definitions more general properties of binary operations applied to finite sequences from [9] are used. Then the fact that certain properties are satisfied by those operations is demonstrated directly from [9]. Moreover some properties can be recognized as being those of real vector space. Multiplication of ntuples of real numbers and square power of ntuple of real numbers using for notation of some properties of finite sums and products of real numbers are defined, followed by definitions of the finite sum and product of ntuples of real numbers using notions and properties introduced in [11]. A number of propositions and theorems on sum and product of finite sequences of real numbers are proved. As additional properties there are proved some properties of real numbers and set representations of binary operations on real numbers.
Convergent sequences and the limit of sequences
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1989
"... Summary. The article contains definitions and same basic properties of bounded sequences (above and below), convergent sequences and the limit of sequences. In the article there are some properties of real numbers useful in the other theorems of this article. ..."
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Cited by 118 (8 self)
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Summary. The article contains definitions and same basic properties of bounded sequences (above and below), convergent sequences and the limit of sequences. In the article there are some properties of real numbers useful in the other theorems of this article.