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169
Splitting a Logic Program
 Principles of Knowledge Representation
, 1994
"... In many cases, a logic program can be divided into two parts, so that one of them, the \bottom " part, does not refer to the predicates de ned in the \top " part. The \bottom " rules can be used then for the evaluation of the predicates that they de ne, and the computed values can be ..."
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Cited by 267 (15 self)
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In many cases, a logic program can be divided into two parts, so that one of them, the \bottom " part, does not refer to the predicates de ned in the \top " part. The \bottom " rules can be used then for the evaluation of the predicates that they de ne, and the computed values can be used to simplify the \top " de nitions. We discuss this idea of splitting a program in the context of the answer set semantics. The main theorem shows how computing the answer sets for a program can be simpli ed when the program is split into parts. The programs covered by the theorem may use both negation as failure and classical negation, and their rules may have disjunctive heads. The usefulness of the concept of splitting for the investigation of answer sets is illustrated by several applications. First, we show that a conservative extension theorem by Gelfond and Przymusinska and a theorem on the closed world assumption by Gelfond and Lifschitz are easy consequences of the splitting theorem. Second, (locally) strati ed programs are shown to have a simple characterization in terms of splitting. The existence and uniqueness of an answer set for such a program can be easily derived from this characterization. Third, we relate the idea of splitting to the notion of orderconsistency. 1
Telos: Representing Knowledge About Information Systems
 ACM Transactions on Information Systems
, 1990
"... This paper describes a language that is intended to support software engineers in the development of information systems throughout the software lifecycle. This language is not a programming language. Following the example of a number of other software engineering projects, our work is based on the ..."
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Cited by 214 (42 self)
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This paper describes a language that is intended to support software engineers in the development of information systems throughout the software lifecycle. This language is not a programming language. Following the example of a number of other software engineering projects, our work is based on the premise that information system development is knowledgeintensive and that the primary responsibility of any language intended to support this task is to be able to formally represent the relevant knowledge.
A Probabilistic Relational Algebra for the Integration of Information Retrieval and Database Systems
 ACM Transactions on Information Systems
, 1994
"... We present a probabilistic relational algebra (PRA) which is a generalization of standard relational algebra. Here tuples are assigned probabilistic weights giving the probability that a tuple belongs to a relation. Based on intensional semantics, the tuple weights of the result of a PRA expression ..."
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Cited by 173 (30 self)
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We present a probabilistic relational algebra (PRA) which is a generalization of standard relational algebra. Here tuples are assigned probabilistic weights giving the probability that a tuple belongs to a relation. Based on intensional semantics, the tuple weights of the result of a PRA expression always confirm to the underlying probabilistic model. We also show for which expressions extensional semantics yields the same results. Furthermore, we discuss complexity issues and indicate possibilities for optimization. With regard to databases, the approach allows for representing imprecise attribute values, whereas for information retrieval, probabilistic document indexing and probabilistic search term weighting can be modelled. As an important extension, we introduce the concept of vague predicates which yields a probabilistic weight instead of a Boolean value, thus allowing for queries with vague selection conditions. So PRA implements uncertainty and vagueness in combination with the...
Logic and databases: a deductive approach
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1984
"... The purpose of this paper is to show that logic provides a convenient formalism for studying classical database problems. There are two main parts to the paper, devoted respectively to conventional databases and deductive databases. In the first part, we focus on query languages, integrity modeling ..."
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Cited by 143 (2 self)
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The purpose of this paper is to show that logic provides a convenient formalism for studying classical database problems. There are two main parts to the paper, devoted respectively to conventional databases and deductive databases. In the first part, we focus on query languages, integrity modeling and maintenance, query optimization, and data
Model Checking vs. Theorem Proving: A Manifesto
, 1991
"... We argue that rather than representing an agent's knowledge as a collection of formulas, and then doing theorem proving to see if a given formula follows from an agent's knowledge base, it may be more useful to represent this knowledge by a semantic model, and then do model checking to see if the g ..."
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Cited by 117 (5 self)
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We argue that rather than representing an agent's knowledge as a collection of formulas, and then doing theorem proving to see if a given formula follows from an agent's knowledge base, it may be more useful to represent this knowledge by a semantic model, and then do model checking to see if the given formula is true in that model. We discuss how to construct a model that represents an agent's knowledge in a number of different contexts, and then consider how to approach the modelchecking problem.
Proving Properties of States in the Situation Calculus
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1993
"... In the situation calculus, it is sometimes necessary to prove that certain properties are true in all world states accessible from the initial state. This is the case for some forms of reasoning about the physical world, for certain planning applications, and for verifying integrity constraints in d ..."
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Cited by 110 (14 self)
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In the situation calculus, it is sometimes necessary to prove that certain properties are true in all world states accessible from the initial state. This is the case for some forms of reasoning about the physical world, for certain planning applications, and for verifying integrity constraints in databases. Not surprisingly, this requires a suitable form of mathematical induction. This paper motivates the need for proving properties of states in the situation calculus, proposes appropriate induction principles for this task, and gives examples of their use in databases and for reasoning about the physical world. Abbreviated title: Proving Properties of States 1 Introduction The situation calculus [8] is enjoying new popularity these days. One reason is that its expressiveness is considerably richer than has been commonly believed (Gelfond, Lifschitz and Rabinov [2], Pinto and Reiter [10], Schubert [16]). Another is the possibility of precisely characterizing the strengths and limi...
Probabilistic Models in Information Retrieval
 The Computer Journal
, 1992
"... In this paper, an introduction and survey over probabilistic information retrieval (IR) is given. First, the basic concepts of this approach are described: the probability ranking principle shows that optimum retrieval quality can be achieved under certain assumptions; a conceptual model for IR alon ..."
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Cited by 104 (4 self)
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In this paper, an introduction and survey over probabilistic information retrieval (IR) is given. First, the basic concepts of this approach are described: the probability ranking principle shows that optimum retrieval quality can be achieved under certain assumptions; a conceptual model for IR along with the corresponding event space clarify the interpretation of the probabilistic parameters involved. For the estimation of these parameters, three different learning strategies are distinguished, namely queryrelated, documentrelated and descriptionrelated learning. As a representative for each of these strategies, a specific model is described. A new approach regards IR as uncertain inference; here, imaging is used as a new technique for estimating the probabilistic parameters, and probabilistic inference networks support more complex forms of inference. Finally, the more general problems of parameter estimation, query expansion and the development of models for advanced document representations are discussed.
Language Features for Flexible Handling of Exceptions in Information Systems
 ACM Transactions on Database Systems
, 1985
"... We present an exception handling facility suitable for languages used to implement databaseintensive Information Systems. Such a mechanism facilitates the development and maintenance of more flexible software systems by supporting the abstraction of details concerning special or abnormal occurrence ..."
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Cited by 98 (5 self)
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We present an exception handling facility suitable for languages used to implement databaseintensive Information Systems. Such a mechanism facilitates the development and maintenance of more flexible software systems by supporting the abstraction of details concerning special or abnormal occurrences. We consider the type constraints imposed by the schema as well as various semantic integrity assertions to be normalcy conditions, and the key contribution of this work is to allow exceptions to these constraints to persist. To achieve this, we propose solutions to a range of problems, including sharing and computing with exceptional information, exception handling by users, the logic of constraints with exceptions, and implementation issues. We also illustrate the use of exception handling in dealing with null values, estimates, and measurements. Keywords and phrases: semantic integrity, violations of type constraints, exception handling, accommodating exceptions, conceptual models CR ...
Fuzzy functional dependencies and lossless join decomposition of fuzzy relational database systems
 ACM Transactions on Database Systems
, 1988
"... This paper deals with the application of fuzzy logic in a relational database environment with the objective of capturing more meaning of the data. It is shown that with suitable interpretations for the fuzzy membership functions, a fuzzy relational data model can be used to represent ambiguities in ..."
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Cited by 73 (0 self)
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This paper deals with the application of fuzzy logic in a relational database environment with the objective of capturing more meaning of the data. It is shown that with suitable interpretations for the fuzzy membership functions, a fuzzy relational data model can be used to represent ambiguities in data values as well as impreciseness in the association among them. Relational operators for fuzzy relations have been studied, and applicability of fuzzy logic in capturing integrity constraints has been investigated. By introducing a fuzzy resemblance measure EQUAL for comparing domain values, the definition of classical functional dependency has been generalized to fuzzy functional dependency (ffd). The implication problem of ffds has been examined and a set of sound and complete inference axioms has been proposed. Next, the problem of lossless join decomposition of fuzzy relations for a given set of fuzzy functional dependencies is investigated. It is proved that with a suitable restriction on EQUAL, the design theory of a classical relational database with functional dependencies can be extended to fuzzy relations satisfying fuzzy functional dependencies.
Updating logical databases
 Advances in Computing Research
, 1986
"... We suggest a new approach to database updates, in which a database is treated as a collection of theories. We investigate two issues: simultaneous multiple update operations and equivalence of databases under update operations. 1. ..."
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Cited by 65 (0 self)
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We suggest a new approach to database updates, in which a database is treated as a collection of theories. We investigate two issues: simultaneous multiple update operations and equivalence of databases under update operations. 1.