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16
Number theory and elementary arithmetic
 Philosophia Mathematica
, 2003
"... Elementary arithmetic (also known as “elementary function arithmetic”) is a fragment of firstorder arithmetic so weak that it cannot prove the totality of an iterated exponential function. Surprisingly, however, the theory turns out to be remarkably robust. I will discuss formal results that show t ..."
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Elementary arithmetic (also known as “elementary function arithmetic”) is a fragment of firstorder arithmetic so weak that it cannot prove the totality of an iterated exponential function. Surprisingly, however, the theory turns out to be remarkably robust. I will discuss formal results that show that many theorems of number theory and combinatorics are derivable in elementary arithmetic, and try to place these results in a broader philosophical context. 1
Intuitionistic Choice and Classical Logic
 Arch. Math. Logic
, 1997
"... this paper we show how to combine the unrestricted countable choice, induction on infinite wellfounded trees and restricted classical logic in a constructively given model. For readers faniliar with intuitionistic systems [14], we may succinctly describe the theory we interpret as follows. Expand t ..."
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this paper we show how to combine the unrestricted countable choice, induction on infinite wellfounded trees and restricted classical logic in a constructively given model. For readers faniliar with intuitionistic systems [14], we may succinctly describe the theory we interpret as follows. Expand the extensional version of HA
Methods of CutElimination
 PROJECTION, LECTURE
"... This short report presents the main topics of methods of cutelimination which will be presented in the course at the ESSLLI'99. It gives a short introduction addressing the problem of cutelimination in general. Furthermore we give a brief description of several methods and refer to other pape ..."
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This short report presents the main topics of methods of cutelimination which will be presented in the course at the ESSLLI'99. It gives a short introduction addressing the problem of cutelimination in general. Furthermore we give a brief description of several methods and refer to other papers added to the course material.
Modal Sequent Calculi Labelled with Truth Values: Completeness, Duality and Analyticity
 LOGIC JOURNAL OF THE IGPL
, 2003
"... Labelled sequent calculi are provided for a wide class of normal modal systems using truth values as labels. The rules for formula constructors are common to all modal systems. For each modal system, specific rules for truth values are provided that reflect the envisaged properties of the accessi ..."
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Labelled sequent calculi are provided for a wide class of normal modal systems using truth values as labels. The rules for formula constructors are common to all modal systems. For each modal system, specific rules for truth values are provided that reflect the envisaged properties of the accessibility relation. Both local and global reasoning are supported. Strong completeness is proved for a natural twosorted algebraic semantics. As a corollary, strong completeness is also obtained over general Kripke semantics. A duality result
Forcing in Proof Theory
 BULL SYMB LOGIC
, 2004
"... Paul Cohen's method of forcing, together with Saul Kripke's related semantics for modal and intuitionistic logic, has had profound effects on a number of branches of mathematical logic, from set theory and model theory to constructive and categorical logic. Here, I argue that forcing also ..."
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Paul Cohen's method of forcing, together with Saul Kripke's related semantics for modal and intuitionistic logic, has had profound effects on a number of branches of mathematical logic, from set theory and model theory to constructive and categorical logic. Here, I argue that forcing also has a place in traditional Hilbertstyle proof theory, where the goal is to formalize portions of ordinary mathematics in restricted axiomatic theories, and study those theories in constructive or syntactic terms. I will discuss the aspects of forcing that are useful in this respect, and some sample applications. The latter include ways of obtaining conservation results for classical and intuitionistic theories, interpreting classical theories in constructive ones, and constructivizing modeltheoretic arguments.
Abstract Theory of Abelian Operator Algebras: An Application of Forcing
 Transactions of the American Mathematical Society 289, no
, 1984
"... Abstract. The abstract abelian operator theory is developed from a general standpoint, using the method of forcing and Booleanvalued models. 1. Introduction. One aspect of the study of operator algebras is the description of algebras on a Hilbert space. This "algebraization " of the theor ..."
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Abstract. The abstract abelian operator theory is developed from a general standpoint, using the method of forcing and Booleanvalued models. 1. Introduction. One aspect of the study of operator algebras is the description of algebras on a Hilbert space. This "algebraization " of the theory of algebras of operators is well understood in the case of bounded normal operators. The theory of von Neumann algebras (or the more general C *algebras) is based
BOOLEAN VALUED ANALYSIS APPROACH TO THE TRACE PROBLEM OF AW*ALGEBRAS
"... It is shown that the concepts of AW*algebras and their types are the same both in the ordinary universe and in Scott's and Solovay's Boolean valued universe of ZFC set theory. Using this transfer principle, it is proved that a finite AW*algebra has a centrevalued trace if and only if it ..."
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It is shown that the concepts of AW*algebras and their types are the same both in the ordinary universe and in Scott's and Solovay's Boolean valued universe of ZFC set theory. Using this transfer principle, it is proved that a finite AW*algebra has a centrevalued trace if and only if its centre is the range of a faithful norm one projection. 1.
Relationships between constructive, predicative, and classical systems of analysis
 In Hendricks et al
"... Both the constructive and predicative approaches to mathematics arose during the period of what was felt to be a foundational crisis in the early part of this century. Each critiqued an essential logical aspect of classical mathematics, namely concerning the unrestricted use of the law of excluded ..."
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Both the constructive and predicative approaches to mathematics arose during the period of what was felt to be a foundational crisis in the early part of this century. Each critiqued an essential logical aspect of classical mathematics, namely concerning the unrestricted use of the law of excluded middle on the one hand, and of apparently circular \impredicative &quot; de nitions on the other. But the positive redevelopment of mathematics along constructive, resp. predicative grounds did not emerge as really viable alternatives to classical, settheoretically based mathematics until the 1960s. Now wehave a massive amount of information, to which this lecture will constitute an introduction, about what can be done by what means, and about the theoretical interrelationships between various formal systems for constructive, predicative and classical analysis. In this nal lecture I will be sketching some redevelopments of classical analysis on both constructive and predicative grounds, with an emphasis on modern approaches. In the case of constructivity, Ihave very little to say about Brouwerian intuitionism, which has been discussed extensively in other lectures at this conference, and concentrate instead on the approach since 1967 of Errett Bishop and his school. In the case of predicativity, I concentrate on developmentsalso since the 1960swhich take up where Weyl's work left o, as described in my second lecture. In both cases, I rst look at these redevelopments from a more informal, mathematical, point This is the last of my three lectures for the conference, Proof Theory: History and
Transfer principle in quantum set theory
, 2006
"... In 1981, Takeuti introduced quantum set theory as the quantum counterpart of Boolean valued models of set theory by constructing a model of set theory based on quantum logic represented by the lattice of closed subspaces in a Hilbert space and showed that appropriate quantum counterparts of ZFC axio ..."
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In 1981, Takeuti introduced quantum set theory as the quantum counterpart of Boolean valued models of set theory by constructing a model of set theory based on quantum logic represented by the lattice of closed subspaces in a Hilbert space and showed that appropriate quantum counterparts of ZFC axioms hold in the model. Here, Takeuti’s formulation is extended to construct a model of set theory based on the logic represented by the lattice of projections in an arbitrary von Neumann algebra. A transfer principle is established that enables us to transfer theorems of ZFC to their quantum counterparts holding in the model. The set of real numbers in the model is shown to be in onetoone correspondence with the set of selfadjoint operators affiliated with the von Neumann algebra generated by the logic. Despite the difficulty pointed out by Takeuti that equality axioms do not generally hold in quantum set theory, it is shown that equality axioms hold for any real numbers in the model. It is also shown that any observational proposition in quantum mechanics can be represented by a corresponding statement for real numbers in the model with the truth value consistent with the standard formulation of quantum mechanics, and that the equality relation between two real numbers in the model is equivalent with the notion of perfect correlation between corresponding observables (selfadjoint operators) in quantum mechanics. The paper is concluded with some remarks on the relevance to quantum set theory of the choice of the implication connective in quantum logic. 1
A Representation of Real and Complex Numbers in Quantum Theory
, 2008
"... A quantum theoretic representation of real and complex numbers is described here as equivalence classes of Cauchy sequences of quantum states of finite strings of qubits. There are 4 types of qubits each with associated single qubit annihilation creation (ac) operators that give the state and locat ..."
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A quantum theoretic representation of real and complex numbers is described here as equivalence classes of Cauchy sequences of quantum states of finite strings of qubits. There are 4 types of qubits each with associated single qubit annihilation creation (ac) operators that give the state and location of each qubit type on a 2 dimensional integer lattice. The string states, defined as finite products of creation operators acting on the vacuum state 0〉, correspond to complex rational numbers with real and imaginary components. These states span a Fock space F. Arithmetic relations and operations are defined for the string states. Cauchy sequences of these states are defined, and the arithmetic relations and operations lifted to apply to these sequences. Based on these, equivalence classes of these sequences are seen to have the requisite properties of real and complex numbers. The representations have some interesting aspects. Quantum equivalence classes are larger than their corresponding classical classes, but no new classes are created. There exist Cauchy sequences such that each state in the sequence is an entangled superposition of the real and imaginary components, yet the sequence is a real number. Also, except for coefficients of superposition states, the construction is done with no reference to the real and complex number base, R, C, of F 1