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81
Remote Agent: To Boldly Go Where No AI System Has Gone Before
, 1998
"... Renewed motives for space exploration have inspired NASA to work toward the goal of establishing a virtual presence in space, through heterogeneous effets of robotic explorers. Information technology, and Artificial Intelligence in particular, will play a central role in this endeavor by endowing th ..."
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Cited by 188 (16 self)
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Renewed motives for space exploration have inspired NASA to work toward the goal of establishing a virtual presence in space, through heterogeneous effets of robotic explorers. Information technology, and Artificial Intelligence in particular, will play a central role in this endeavor by endowing these explorers with a form of computational intelligence that we call remote agents. In this paper we describe the Remote Agent, a specific autonomous agent architecture based on the principles of modelbased programming, onboard deduction and search, and goaldirected closedloop commanding, that takes a significant step toward enabling this future. This architecture addresses the unique characteristics of the spacecraft domain that require highly reliable autonomous operations over long periods of time with tight deadlines, resource constraints, and concurrent activity among tightly coupled subsystems. The Remote Agent integrates constraintbased temporal planning and scheduling, robust multithreaded execution, and modelbased mode identification and reconfiguration. The demonstration of the integrated system as an onboard controller for Deep Space One, NASA's rst New Millennium mission, is scheduled for a period of a week in late 1998. The development of the Remote Agent also provided the opportunity to reassess some of AI's conventional wisdom about the challenges of implementing embedded systems, tractable reasoning, and knowledge representation. We discuss these issues, and our often contrary experiences, throughout the paper.
Clustering with instancelevel constraints
 In Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference on Machine Learning
, 2000
"... One goal of research in artificial intelligence is to automate tasks that currently require human expertise; this automation is important because it saves time and brings problems that were previously too large to be solved into the feasible domain. Data analysis, or the ability to identify meaningf ..."
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Cited by 150 (6 self)
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One goal of research in artificial intelligence is to automate tasks that currently require human expertise; this automation is important because it saves time and brings problems that were previously too large to be solved into the feasible domain. Data analysis, or the ability to identify meaningful patterns and trends in large volumes of data, is an important task that falls into this category. Clustering algorithms are a particularly useful group of data analysis tools. These methods are used, for example, to analyze satellite images of the Earth to identify and categorize different land and foliage types or to analyze telescopic observations to determine what distinct types of astronomical bodies exist and to categorize each observation. However, most existing clustering methods apply general similarity techniques rather than making use of problemspecific information. This dissertation first presents a novel method for converting existing clustering algorithms into constrained clustering algorithms. The resulting methods are able to accept domainspecific information in the form of constraints on the output clusters. At the most general level, each constraint is an instancelevel statement
An Algorithm to Evaluate Quantified Boolean Formulae and its Experimental Evaluation
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1999
"... The high computational complexity of advanced reasoning tasks such as reasoning about knowledge and planning calls for efficient and reliable algorithms for reasoning problems harder than NP. In this paper we propose Evaluate, an algorithm for evaluating Quantified Boolean Formulae, a language that ..."
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Cited by 138 (2 self)
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The high computational complexity of advanced reasoning tasks such as reasoning about knowledge and planning calls for efficient and reliable algorithms for reasoning problems harder than NP. In this paper we propose Evaluate, an algorithm for evaluating Quantified Boolean Formulae, a language that extends propositional logic in a way such that many advanced forms of propositional reasoning, e.g., circumscription, can be easily formulated as evaluation of a QBF. Algorithms for evaluation of QBFs are suitable for the experimental analysis on a wide range of complexity classes, a property not easily found in other formalisms. Evaluate is based on a generalization of the DavisPutnam procedure for SAT, and is guaranteed to work in polynomial space. Before presenting the algorithm, we discuss several abstract properties of QBFs that we singled out to make it more efficient. We also discuss various options that were investigated about heuristics and data structures, and report the main res...
Backtracking Algorithms for Disjunctions of Temporal Constraints
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1998
"... We extend the framework of simple temporal problems studied originally by Dechter, Meiri and Pearl to consider constraints of the form x1 \Gamma y1 r1 : : : xn \Gamma yn rn , where x1 : : : xn ; y1 : : : yn are variables ranging over the real numbers, r1 : : : rn are real constants, and n 1. W ..."
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Cited by 106 (2 self)
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We extend the framework of simple temporal problems studied originally by Dechter, Meiri and Pearl to consider constraints of the form x1 \Gamma y1 r1 : : : xn \Gamma yn rn , where x1 : : : xn ; y1 : : : yn are variables ranging over the real numbers, r1 : : : rn are real constants, and n 1. We have implemented four progressively more efficient algorithms for the consistency checking problem for this class of temporal constraints. We have partially ordered those algorithms according to the number of visited search nodes and the number of performed consistency checks. Finally, we have carried out a series of experimental results on the location of the hard region. The results show that hard problems occur at a critical value of the ratio of disjunctions to variables. This value is between 6 and 7. Introduction Reasoning with temporal constraints has been a hot research topic for the last fifteen years. The importance of this problem has been demonstrated in many areas of artifici...
Random Constraint Satisfaction: A More Accurate Picture
, 1997
"... Recently there has been a great amount of interest in Random Constraint Satisfaction Problems, both from an experimental and a theoretical point of view. Rather intruigingly, experimental results with various models for generating random CSP instances suggest a "thresholdlike" behaviour and some ..."
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Cited by 77 (7 self)
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Recently there has been a great amount of interest in Random Constraint Satisfaction Problems, both from an experimental and a theoretical point of view. Rather intruigingly, experimental results with various models for generating random CSP instances suggest a "thresholdlike" behaviour and some theoretical work has been done in analyzing these models when the number of variables is asymptotic. In this paper we show that the models commonly used for generating random CSP instances suffer from a wrong parameterization which makes them unsuitable for asymptotic analysis. In particular, when the number of variables becomes large almost all instances they generate are, trivially, overconstrained. We then present a new model that is suitable for asymptotic analysis and, in the spirit of random SAT, we derive lower and upper bounds for its parameters so that the instances generated are "almost surely" over and underconstrained, respectively. Finally, we apply the technique introduced in [19], to one of the popular models in Artificial Intelligence and derive sharper estimates for the probability of being overconstrained as a function of the number of variables. 1
The efficiency of resolution and DavisPutnam procedures
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1999
"... We consider several problems related to the use of resolutionbased methods for determining whether a given boolean formula in conjunctive normal form is satisfiable. First, building on work of Clegg, Edmonds and Impagliazzo, we give an algorithm for satisfiability that when given an unsatisfiabl ..."
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Cited by 53 (1 self)
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We consider several problems related to the use of resolutionbased methods for determining whether a given boolean formula in conjunctive normal form is satisfiable. First, building on work of Clegg, Edmonds and Impagliazzo, we give an algorithm for satisfiability that when given an unsatisfiable formula of F finds a resolution proof of F , and the runtime of our algorithm is nontrivial as a function of the size of the shortest resolution proof of F . Next we investigate a class of backtrack search algorithms, commonly known as DavisPutnam procedures and provide the first averagecase complexity analysis for their behavior on random formulas. In particular, for a simple algorithm in this class, called ordered DLL we prove that the running time of the algorithm on a randomly generated kCNF formula with n variables and m clauses is 2 Q(n(n/m) 1/(k2) ) with probability 1  o(1). Finally, we give new lower bounds on res(F), the size of the smallest resolution refutation ...
PartitionBased Logical Reasoning for FirstOrder and Propositional Theories
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2000
"... In this paper we provide algorithms for reasoning with partitions of related logical axioms in propositional and firstorder logic (FOL). We also provide a greedy algorithm that automatically decomposes a set of logical axioms into partitions. Our motivation is twofold. First, we are concerned with ..."
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Cited by 51 (8 self)
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In this paper we provide algorithms for reasoning with partitions of related logical axioms in propositional and firstorder logic (FOL). We also provide a greedy algorithm that automatically decomposes a set of logical axioms into partitions. Our motivation is twofold. First, we are concerned with how to reason e#ectively with multiple knowledge bases that have overlap in content. Second, we are concerned with improving the e#ciency of reasoning over a set of logical axioms by partitioning the set with respect to some detectable structure, and reasoning over individual partitions. Many of the reasoning procedures we present are based on the idea of passing messages between partitions. We present algorithms for reasoning using forward messagepassing and using backward messagepassing with partitions of logical axioms. Associated with each partition is a reasoning procedure. We characterize a class of reasoning procedures that ensures completeness and soundness of our messagepassing ...
On the Complexity of Unsatisfiability Proofs for Random kCNF Formulas
 In 30th Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
, 1997
"... We study the complexity of proving unsatisfiability for random kCNF formulas with clause density D = m=n where m is number of clauses and n is the number of variables. We prove the first nontrivial general upper bound, giving algorithms that, in particular, for k = 3 produce refutations almost cer ..."
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Cited by 50 (1 self)
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We study the complexity of proving unsatisfiability for random kCNF formulas with clause density D = m=n where m is number of clauses and n is the number of variables. We prove the first nontrivial general upper bound, giving algorithms that, in particular, for k = 3 produce refutations almost certainly in time 2 O(n=D) . This is polynomial when m n 2 =logn. We show that our upper bounds are tight for certain natural classes of DavisPutnam algorithms. We show further that random 3CNF formulas of clause density D almost certainly have no resolution refutation of size smaller than 2 W(n=D 4+e ) , which implies the same lower bound on any DavisPutnam algorithm. We also give a much simpler argument based on a novel form of selfreduction that yields a slightly weaker 2 W(n=D 5+e ) lower bound. 1 Introduction The random kCNF model has been widely studied for several good reasons. First, it is an intrinsically natural model, analogous to the random graph model, that shed...
Stochastic Boolean Satisfiability
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 2000
"... . Satisfiability problems and probabilistic models are core topics of artificial intelligence and computer science. This paper looks at the rich intersection between these two areas, opening the door for the use of satisfiability approaches in probabilistic domains. The paper examines a generic stoc ..."
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Cited by 47 (2 self)
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. Satisfiability problems and probabilistic models are core topics of artificial intelligence and computer science. This paper looks at the rich intersection between these two areas, opening the door for the use of satisfiability approaches in probabilistic domains. The paper examines a generic stochastic satisfiability problem, SSat, which can function for probabilistic domains as Sat does for deterministic domains. It shows the connection between SSat and well studied problems in belief network inference and planning under uncertainty, and defines algorithms, both systematic and stochastic, for solving SSat instances. These algorithms are validated on random SSat formulae generated under the fixedclause model. In spite of the large complexity gap between SSat (PSPACE) and Sat (NP), the paper suggests that much of what we've learned about Sat transfers to the probabilistic domain. 1. Introduction There has been a recent focus in artificial intelligence (AI) on solving problems exh...
Solving Difficult Instances of Boolean Satisfiability in the Presence of Symmetry
, 2002
"... Research in algorithms for Boolean satisfiability (SAT) and their implementations [45, 41, 10] has recently outpaced benchmarking efforts. Most of the classic DIMACS benchmarks [21] can now be solved in seconds on commodity PCs. More recent benchmarks [54] take longer to solve due of their large siz ..."
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Cited by 44 (17 self)
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Research in algorithms for Boolean satisfiability (SAT) and their implementations [45, 41, 10] has recently outpaced benchmarking efforts. Most of the classic DIMACS benchmarks [21] can now be solved in seconds on commodity PCs. More recent benchmarks [54] take longer to solve due of their large size, but are still solved in minutes. Yet, small and difficult SAT instances must exist if P##NP. To this end, our work articulates SAT instances that are unusually difficult for their size, including satisfiable instances derived from Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) routing problems. With an efficient implementation to solve the graph automorphism problem [39, 50, 51], we show that in structured SAT instances difficulty may be associated with large numbers of symmetries.