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100
How to Make AdHoc Polymorphism Less Ad Hoc
, 1988
"... This paper presents type classes, a new approach to adhoc polymorphism. Type classes permit overloading of arithmetic operators such as multiplication, and generalise the "eqtype variables" of Standard ML. Type classes extend the Hindley/Milner polymorphic type system, and provide a new approach to ..."
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Cited by 345 (3 self)
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This paper presents type classes, a new approach to adhoc polymorphism. Type classes permit overloading of arithmetic operators such as multiplication, and generalise the "eqtype variables" of Standard ML. Type classes extend the Hindley/Milner polymorphic type system, and provide a new approach to issues that arise in objectoriented programming, bounded type quantification, and abstract data types. This paper provides an informal introduction to type classes, and defines them formally by means of type inference rules. 1 Introduction Strachey chose the adjectives adhoc and parametric to distinguish two varieties of polymorphism [Str67]. Adhoc polymorphism occurs when a function is defined over several different types, acting in a different way for each type. A typical example is overloaded multiplication: the same symbol may be used to denote multiplication of integers (as in 3*3) and multiplication of floating point values (as in 3.14*3.14). Parametric polymorphism occurs wh...
Operations on records
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 1991
"... We define a simple collection of operations for creating and manipulating record structures, where records are intended as finite associations of values to labels. A secondorder type system over these operations supports both subtyping and polymorphism. We provide typechecking algorithms and limite ..."
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Cited by 141 (13 self)
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We define a simple collection of operations for creating and manipulating record structures, where records are intended as finite associations of values to labels. A secondorder type system over these operations supports both subtyping and polymorphism. We provide typechecking algorithms and limited semantic models. Our approach unifies and extends previous notions of records, bounded quantification, record extension, and parametrization by rowvariables. The general aim is to provide foundations for concepts found in objectoriented languages, within a framework based on typed lambdacalculus.
A Calculus for Overload Functions with Subtyping

, 1992
"... We present a simple extension of typed calculus where functions can be overloaded by putting different "branches of code" together. When the function is applied, the branch to execute is chosen according to a particular selection rule which depends on the type of the argument. The crucial featu ..."
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Cited by 141 (28 self)
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We present a simple extension of typed calculus where functions can be overloaded by putting different "branches of code" together. When the function is applied, the branch to execute is chosen according to a particular selection rule which depends on the type of the argument. The crucial feature of the present approach is that the branch selection depends on the "runtime type" of the argument, which may differ from its compiletime type, because of the existence of a subtyping relation among types. Hence overloading cannot be eliminated by a static analysis of code, but is an essential feature to be dealt with during computation. We obtain in this way a typedependent calculus, which differs from the various calculi where types do not play any role during computation. We prove Confluence and a generalized SubjectReduction theorem for this calculus. We prove Strong Normalization for a "stratified" subcalculus. The definition of this calculus is guided by the understand...
On the Expressive Power of Programming Languages
 Science of Computer Programming
, 1990
"... The literature on programming languages contains an abundance of informal claims on the relative expressive power of programming languages, but there is no framework for formalizing such statements nor for deriving interesting consequences. As a first step in this direction, we develop a formal noti ..."
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Cited by 132 (4 self)
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The literature on programming languages contains an abundance of informal claims on the relative expressive power of programming languages, but there is no framework for formalizing such statements nor for deriving interesting consequences. As a first step in this direction, we develop a formal notion of expressiveness and investigate its properties. To validate the theory, we analyze some widely held beliefs about the expressive power of several extensions of functional languages. Based on these results, we believe that our system correctly captures many of the informal ideas on expressiveness, and that it constitutes a foundation for further research in this direction. 1 Comparing Programming Languages The literature on programming languages contains an abundance of informal claims on the expressive power of programming languages. Arguments in these contexts typically assert the expressibility or nonexpressibility of programming constructs relative to a language. Unfortunately, pro...
Making Pure ObjectOriented Languages Practical
 In OOPSLA '91 Conference Proceedings
, 1991
"... In the past, objectoriented language designers and programmers have been forced to choose between pure message passing and performance. Last year, our SELF system achieved close to half the speed of optimized C but suffered from impractically long compile times. Two new optimization techniques, def ..."
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Cited by 122 (20 self)
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In the past, objectoriented language designers and programmers have been forced to choose between pure message passing and performance. Last year, our SELF system achieved close to half the speed of optimized C but suffered from impractically long compile times. Two new optimization techniques, deferred compilation of uncommon cases and nonbacktracking splitting using path objects, have improved compilation speed by more than an order of magnitude. SELF now compiles about as fast as an optimizing C compiler and runs at over half the speed of optimized C. This new level of performance may make pure objectoriented languages practical. 1 Introduction In the past, objectoriented language designers and programmers have been forced to choose between purity and performance. In a pure objectoriented language, all computation, even lowlevel operations like variable accessing, arithmetic, and array indexing, is performed by sending messages to objects. Although a message send may cost o...
Iterative type analysis and extended message splitting: Optimizing dynamicallytyped objectoriented programs
 In Proceedings of the SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation
, 1990
"... Abstract. Objectoriented languages have suffered from poor performance caused by frequent and slow dynamicallybound procedure calls. The best way to speed up a procedure call is to compile it out, but dynamic binding of objectoriented procedure calls without static receiver type information precl ..."
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Cited by 119 (16 self)
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Abstract. Objectoriented languages have suffered from poor performance caused by frequent and slow dynamicallybound procedure calls. The best way to speed up a procedure call is to compile it out, but dynamic binding of objectoriented procedure calls without static receiver type information precludes inlining. Iterative type analysis and extended message splitting are new compilation techniques that extract much of the necessary type information and make it possible to hoist runtime type tests out of loops. Our system compiles code onthefly that is customized to the actual data types used by a running program. The compiler constructs a control flow graph annotated with type information by simultaneously performing type analysis and inlining. Extended message splitting preserves type information that would otherwise be lost by a controlflow merge by duplicating all the code between the merge and the place that uses the information. Iterative type analysis computes the types of variables used in a loop by repeatedly recompiling the loop until the computed types reach a fixpoint. Together these two techniques enable our SELF compiler to split off a copy of an entire loop, optimized for the commoncase types. By the time our SELF compiler generates code for the graph, it has eliminated many dynamicallydispatched
Inheritance As Implicit Coercion
 Information and Computation
, 1991
"... . We present a method for providing semantic interpretations for languages with a type system featuring inheritance polymorphism. Our approach is illustrated on an extension of the language Fun of Cardelli and Wegner, which we interpret via a translation into an extended polymorphic lambda calculus. ..."
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Cited by 116 (3 self)
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. We present a method for providing semantic interpretations for languages with a type system featuring inheritance polymorphism. Our approach is illustrated on an extension of the language Fun of Cardelli and Wegner, which we interpret via a translation into an extended polymorphic lambda calculus. Our goal is to interpret inheritances in Fun via coercion functions which are definable in the target of the translation. Existing techniques in the theory of semantic domains can be then used to interpret the extended polymorphic lambda calculus, thus providing many models for the original language. This technique makes it possible to model a rich type discipline which includes parametric polymorphism and recursive types as well as inheritance. A central difficulty in providing interpretations for explicit type disciplines featuring inheritance in the sense discussed in this paper arises from the fact that programs can typecheck in more than one way. Since interpretations follow the type...
Algebraic Reconstruction of Types and Effects
, 1991
"... We present the first algorithm for reconstructing the types and effects of expressions in the presence of first class procedures in a polymorphic typed language. Effects are static descriptions of the dynamic behavior of expressions. Just as a type describes what an expression computes, an effect de ..."
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Cited by 109 (6 self)
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We present the first algorithm for reconstructing the types and effects of expressions in the presence of first class procedures in a polymorphic typed language. Effects are static descriptions of the dynamic behavior of expressions. Just as a type describes what an expression computes, an effect describes how an expression computes. Types are more complicated to reconstruct in the presence of effects because the algebra of effects induces complex constraints on both effects and types. In this paper we show how to perform reconstruction in the presence of such constraints with a new algorithm called algebraic reconstruction, prove that it is sound and complete, and discuss its practical import. This research was supported by DARPA under ONR Contract N0001489J1988. 1
A Practical Soft Type System for Scheme
 In Proceedings of the 1994 ACM Conference on LISP and Functional Programming
, 1993
"... Soft type systems provide the benefits of static type checking for dynamically typed languages without rejecting untypable programs. A soft type checker infers types for variables and expressions and inserts explicit runtime checks to transform untypable programs to typable form. We describe a prac ..."
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Cited by 108 (4 self)
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Soft type systems provide the benefits of static type checking for dynamically typed languages without rejecting untypable programs. A soft type checker infers types for variables and expressions and inserts explicit runtime checks to transform untypable programs to typable form. We describe a practical soft type system for R4RS Scheme. Our type checker uses a representation for types that is expressive, easy to interpret, and supports efficient type inference. Soft Scheme supports all of R4RS Scheme, including procedures of fixed and variable arity, assignment, continuations, and toplevel definitions. Our implementation is available by anonymous FTP. The first author was supported in part by the United States Department of Defense under a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship. y The second author was supported by NSF grant CCR9122518 and the Texas Advanced Technology Program under grant 003604014. 1 Introduction Dynamically typed languages like Scheme...
Sound Polymorphic Type Inference for Objects
, 1995
"... A polymorphic, constraintbased type inference algorithm for an objectoriented language is defined. A generalized form of type, polymorphic recursively constrained types, are inferred. These types are expressive enough for typing objects, since they generalize recursive types and Fbounded polymor ..."
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Cited by 107 (9 self)
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A polymorphic, constraintbased type inference algorithm for an objectoriented language is defined. A generalized form of type, polymorphic recursively constrained types, are inferred. These types are expressive enough for typing objects, since they generalize recursive types and Fbounded polymorphism. The wellknown tradeoff between inheritance and subtyping is mitigated by the type inference mechanism. Soundness and completeness of type inference are established. 1 Introduction Type inference, the process of automatically inferring type information from untyped programs, is originally due to Hindley and Milner [16]. These ideas have found their way into some recent innovative programming languages, including Standard ML [17]. The type inference problem for objectoriented languages is a challenging one: even simple objectoriented programs require quite advanced features to be present in the type system. One of the main sources of difficulty lies with binary methods, such as an a...