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The Type and Effect Discipline
 Information and Computation
, 1992
"... The type and effect discipline is a new framework for reconstructing the principal type and the minimal effect of expressions in implicitly typed polymorphic functional languages that support imperative constructs. The type and effect discipline outperforms other polymorphic type systems. Just as ty ..."
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Cited by 175 (3 self)
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The type and effect discipline is a new framework for reconstructing the principal type and the minimal effect of expressions in implicitly typed polymorphic functional languages that support imperative constructs. The type and effect discipline outperforms other polymorphic type systems. Just as types abstract collections of concrete values, effects denote imperative operations on regions. Regions abstract sets of possibly aliased memory locations. Effects are used to control type generalization in the presence of imperative constructs while regions delimit observable sideeffects. The observable effects of an expression range over the regions that are free in its type environment and its type; effects related to local data structures can be discarded during type reconstruction. The type of an expression can be generalized with respect to the variables that are not free in the type environment or in the observable effect. 1 Introduction Type inference [12] is the process that automa...
Algebraic Reconstruction of Types and Effects
, 1991
"... We present the first algorithm for reconstructing the types and effects of expressions in the presence of first class procedures in a polymorphic typed language. Effects are static descriptions of the dynamic behavior of expressions. Just as a type describes what an expression computes, an effect de ..."
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Cited by 114 (6 self)
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We present the first algorithm for reconstructing the types and effects of expressions in the presence of first class procedures in a polymorphic typed language. Effects are static descriptions of the dynamic behavior of expressions. Just as a type describes what an expression computes, an effect describes how an expression computes. Types are more complicated to reconstruct in the presence of effects because the algebra of effects induces complex constraints on both effects and types. In this paper we show how to perform reconstruction in the presence of such constraints with a new algorithm called algebraic reconstruction, prove that it is sound and complete, and discuss its practical import. This research was supported by DARPA under ONR Contract N0001489J1988. 1
Observers for Linear Types
 ESOP ’92: 4th European Symposium on Programming, Rennes, France, Proceedings
, 1992
"... Linear types provide the framework for a safe embedding of mutable state in functional languages by enforcing the principle that variables of linear type must be used exactly once. A potential disadvantage of this approach is that it places read accesses to suchvariables under the same restrictio ..."
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Cited by 30 (4 self)
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Linear types provide the framework for a safe embedding of mutable state in functional languages by enforcing the principle that variables of linear type must be used exactly once. A potential disadvantage of this approach is that it places read accesses to suchvariables under the same restriction as write accesses, and thus prevents reads to proceed in parallel. We present here an extension of linear types which augments the usual distinction between linear and nonlinear bya third state, observers of linear variables. Since, unlike linear variables, observers can be duplicated, multiple concurrent reads are made possible. On the other hand, observers must be shortlived enough to never overlap with mutations. The resulting type system is in many aspects similar to the one of ML: It is polymorphic, has principal types, and admits a type reconstruction algorithm. 1 Introduction We are investigating a type system that addresses the update problem in functional languages: How...
Reasoning about Continuations with Control Effects
, 1989
"... We present a new static analysis method for firstclass continuations that uses an effect system to classify the control domain behavior of expressions in a typed polymorphic language. We introduce two new control effects, goto and comefrom, that describe the control flow properties of expressions. ..."
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Cited by 25 (4 self)
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We present a new static analysis method for firstclass continuations that uses an effect system to classify the control domain behavior of expressions in a typed polymorphic language. We introduce two new control effects, goto and comefrom, that describe the control flow properties of expressions. An expression that does not haveagoto effect is said to be continuation following because it will always call its passed return continuation. An expression that does not haveacomefrom effect is said to be continuation discarding because it will never preserve its return continuation for later use. Unobservable control effects can be masked by the effect system. Control effect soundness theorems guarantee that the effects computed statically by the effect system are a conservative approximation of the dynamic behavior of an expression. The effect
Report on the FX programming language
, 1992
"... This report gives a defining description of the programming language FX. The FX programming language is designed to support the parallel implementation of applications that perform both symbolic and scientific computations. The unique features of FX include: An effect system, to discover expression ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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This report gives a defining description of the programming language FX. The FX programming language is designed to support the parallel implementation of applications that perform both symbolic and scientific computations. The unique features of FX include: An effect system, to discover expression scheduling constraints. An effect is a static description of the sideeffects an expression may perform when it is evaluated. Just as a type describes what an expression computes, an effect describes how an expression computes. Abstraction over any kind of description, thus permitting firstclass type and effect polymorphism. Effect polymorphism makes the FX effect system more powerful than previous approaches to sideeffect analysis in the presence of firstclass subroutines.
Type reconstruction for SCI
 Functional Programming, Glasgow 1995, Electronic Workshops in Computing
, 1996
"... We present atype reconstruction algorithm for SCIR [10], atype system for a language with syntactic control of interference. SCIR guarantees that terms of passive type do not cause any side e ects, and that distinct identi ers do not interfere. A reconstruction algorithm for this type system must de ..."
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Cited by 3 (3 self)
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We present atype reconstruction algorithm for SCIR [10], atype system for a language with syntactic control of interference. SCIR guarantees that terms of passive type do not cause any side e ects, and that distinct identi ers do not interfere. A reconstruction algorithm for this type system must deal with di erent kinds (passive and general) and di erent uses of identi ers (passive and active). In particular, there may not be a unique choice of kinds for type variables. Our work extends SCIR typings with kind constraints. We show that principal type schemes exist for this extended system and outline an algorithm for computing them. 1
Type and Effect Systems via Abstract Interpretation
, 1995
"... Abstract interpretation and type and effect systems are two wellknown frameworks for the static analysis of programs. While abstract interpretation uses the program controlflow to approximate its runtime behavior, type and effect systems are based on the program structural syntax. The fundamental ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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Abstract interpretation and type and effect systems are two wellknown frameworks for the static analysis of programs. While abstract interpretation uses the program controlflow to approximate its runtime behavior, type and effect systems are based on the program structural syntax. The fundamental result of this paper is to show how these a priori distinct approaches can be related to each other, shedding a new light on their relative expressiveness. A single example of static analysis, namely a straightforward program time complexity estimator for the simply typed lambdacalculus with recursion, is used throughout the paper to present the core ideas. We showhowan abstract interpretation and a type and effect system can be designed for this analysis and prove them equivalent, thus paving the way toabetter understanding of the relative merits of these two frameworks.
Type reconstruction for syntactic control of interference, part 2
 Loyola University, Chicago
, 1998
"... Syntactic Control of Interference (SCI) [17] has long been studied asabasis for interferencefree programming, with cleaner reasoning properties and semantics than traditional imperative languages. This paper improves upon Huang and Reddy's type inference system [7] for SCIbased languages in t ..."
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Syntactic Control of Interference (SCI) [17] has long been studied asabasis for interferencefree programming, with cleaner reasoning properties and semantics than traditional imperative languages. This paper improves upon Huang and Reddy's type inference system [7] for SCIbased languages in two signi cant ways. First, we eliminate the need for explicit coercion operators in terms. Second, we consider adding letbound polymorphism, which appears to be nontrivial in the presence of interference control. SCI can be adapted to a wide variety of languages, and our techniques should be applicable to any such language with SCIbased interference control. 1
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"... pour obtenir le dipl^ome d'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches en Sciences de l'Universite de Paris XI. Pour completement apprecier le contenu de ces recherches, le lecteur pourra se reporter avec pro t au texte complet des articles donnes en annexe. 1 Remerciements L'ensemble de ce ..."
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pour obtenir le dipl^ome d'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches en Sciences de l'Universite de Paris XI. Pour completement apprecier le contenu de ces recherches, le lecteur pourra se reporter avec pro t au texte complet des articles donnes en annexe. 1 Remerciements L'ensemble de ces travaux n'aurait pu ^etre ce qu'il est sans le concours de nombreux chercheurs et amis qu'il m'est un plaisir de remercier ici: Au Centre de Recherche en Informatique (CRI) de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris, mon colocataire