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397
A taxonomy and evaluation of dense twoframe stereo correspondence algorithms
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 2002
"... Abstract. Stereo matching is one of the most active research areas in computer vision. While a large number of algorithms for stereo correspondence have been developed, relatively little work has been done on characterizing their performance. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of dense, twoframe ..."
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Cited by 1537 (23 self)
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Abstract. Stereo matching is one of the most active research areas in computer vision. While a large number of algorithms for stereo correspondence have been developed, relatively little work has been done on characterizing their performance. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of dense, twoframe stereo methods. Our taxonomy is designed to assess the different components and design decisions made in individual stereo algorithms. Using this taxonomy, we compare existing stereo methods and present experiments evaluating the performance of many different variants. In order to establish a common software platform and a collection of data sets for easy evaluation, we have designed a standalone, flexible C++ implementation that enables the evaluation of individual components and that can easily be extended to include new algorithms. We have also produced several new multiframe stereo data sets with ground truth and are making both the code and data sets available on the Web. Finally, we include a comparative evaluation of a large set of today’s bestperforming stereo algorithms.
An Efficient Solution to the FivePoint Relative Pose Problem
, 2004
"... An efficient algorithmic solution to the classical fivepoint relative pose problem is presented. The problem is to find the possible solutions for relative camera pose between two calibrated views given five corresponding points. The algorithm consists of computing the coefficients of a tenth degre ..."
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Cited by 475 (12 self)
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An efficient algorithmic solution to the classical fivepoint relative pose problem is presented. The problem is to find the possible solutions for relative camera pose between two calibrated views given five corresponding points. The algorithm consists of computing the coefficients of a tenth degree polynomial in closed form and subsequently finding its roots. It is the first algorithm well suited for numerical implementation that also corresponds to the inherent complexity of the problem. We investigate the numerical precision of the algorithm. We also study its performance under noise in minimal as well as overdetermined cases. The performance is compared to that of the well known 8 and 7point methods and a 6point scheme. The algorithm is used in a robust hypothesizeandtest framework to estimate structure and motion in realtime with low delay. The realtime system uses solely visual input and has been demonstrated at major conferences.
Advances in computational stereo
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2003
"... Abstract—Extraction of threedimensional structure of a scene from stereo images is a problem that has been studied by the computer vision community for decades. Early work focused on the fundamentals of image correspondence and stereo geometry. Stereo research has matured significantly throughout t ..."
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Cited by 218 (3 self)
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Abstract—Extraction of threedimensional structure of a scene from stereo images is a problem that has been studied by the computer vision community for decades. Early work focused on the fundamentals of image correspondence and stereo geometry. Stereo research has matured significantly throughout the years and many advances in computational stereo continue to be made, allowing stereo to be applied to new and more demanding problems. In this paper, we review recent advances in computational stereo, focusing primarily on three important topics: correspondence methods, methods for occlusion, and realtime implementations. Throughout, we present tables that summarize and draw distinctions among key ideas and approaches. Where available, we provide comparative analyses and we make suggestions for analyses yet to be done. Index Terms—Computational stereo, stereo correspondence, occlusion, realtime stereo, review. æ 1
In Defense of the EightPoint Algorithm
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1997
"... Abstract—The fundamental matrix is a basic tool in the analysis of scenes taken with two uncalibrated cameras, and the eightpoint algorithm is a frequently cited method for computing the fundamental matrix from a set of eight or more point matches. It has the advantage of simplicity of implementati ..."
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Cited by 203 (1 self)
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Abstract—The fundamental matrix is a basic tool in the analysis of scenes taken with two uncalibrated cameras, and the eightpoint algorithm is a frequently cited method for computing the fundamental matrix from a set of eight or more point matches. It has the advantage of simplicity of implementation. The prevailing view is, however, that it is extremely susceptible to noise and hence virtually useless for most purposes. This paper challenges that view, by showing that by preceding the algorithm with a very simple normalization (translation and scaling) of the coordinates of the matched points, results are obtained comparable with the best iterative algorithms. This improved performance is justified by theory and verified by extensive experiments on real images. Index Terms—Fundamental matrix, eightpoint algorithm, condition number, epipolar structure, stereo vision.
Robust parameter estimation in computer vision
 SIAM Reviews
, 1999
"... Abstract. Estimation techniques in computer vision applications must estimate accurate model parameters despite smallscale noise in the data, occasional largescale measurement errors (outliers), and measurements from multiple populations in the same data set. Increasingly, robust estimation techni ..."
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Cited by 162 (10 self)
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Abstract. Estimation techniques in computer vision applications must estimate accurate model parameters despite smallscale noise in the data, occasional largescale measurement errors (outliers), and measurements from multiple populations in the same data set. Increasingly, robust estimation techniques, some borrowed from the statistics literature and others described in the computer vision literature, have been used in solving these parameter estimation problems. Ideally, these techniques should effectively ignore the outliers and measurements from other populations, treating them as outliers, when estimating the parameters of a single population. Two frequently used techniques are leastmedian of
In Defence of the 8point Algorithm
"... The fundamental matrix is a basic tool in the analysis of scenes taken with two uncalibrated cameras, and the 8point algoritm is a frequent#e cit#3 met#9 d for comput#10 t he fundament al ma t# ix from a set of 8 or more point mat ches. It hast he advant age of simplicit y of implement at ion. The ..."
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Cited by 159 (3 self)
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The fundamental matrix is a basic tool in the analysis of scenes taken with two uncalibrated cameras, and the 8point algoritm is a frequent#e cit#3 met#9 d for comput#10 t he fundament al ma t# ix from a set of 8 or more point mat ches. It hast he advant age of simplicit y of implement at ion. The prevailing view is, however,t#(9 it isext#3791( suscept#43 t o noise and hence virtually useless for most purposes. This paper challengest#en view, by showing t#ng by precedingt he algorit hm wit h a very simple normalizat ion(t ranslat ion and scaling) oft he coordinat es oft he mat ched point#( result# are obt# ined comparable wit# t he best it## at ive algorit#209 This improved performance is just#690 byt#1082 and verified byext#259( e experiment s on real images.
Structure from motion without correspondence
 In IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR
, 2000
"... A method is presented to recover 3D scene structure and camera motion from multiple images without the need for correspondence information. The problem is framed as finding the maximum likelihood structure and motion given only the 2D measurements, integrating over all possible assignments of 3D fea ..."
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Cited by 124 (6 self)
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A method is presented to recover 3D scene structure and camera motion from multiple images without the need for correspondence information. The problem is framed as finding the maximum likelihood structure and motion given only the 2D measurements, integrating over all possible assignments of 3D features to 2D measurements. This goal is achieved by means of an algorithm which iteratively refines a probability distribution over the set of all correspondence assignments. At each iteration a new structure from motion problem is solved, using as input a set of ’virtual measurements’ derived from this probability distribution. The distribution needed can be efficiently obtained by Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling. The approach is cast within the framework of ExpectationMaximization, which guarantees convergence to a local maximizer of the likelihood. The algorithm works well in practice, as will be demonstrated using results on several real image sequences. 1
Exactly sparse delayedstate filters for viewbased SLAM
 IEEE Transactions on Robotics
, 2006
"... Abstract—This paper reports the novel insight that the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) information matrix is exactly sparse in a delayedstate framework. Such a framework is used in viewbased representations of the environment that rely upon scanmatching raw sensor data to obtain virt ..."
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Cited by 102 (21 self)
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Abstract—This paper reports the novel insight that the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) information matrix is exactly sparse in a delayedstate framework. Such a framework is used in viewbased representations of the environment that rely upon scanmatching raw sensor data to obtain virtual observations of robot motion with respect to a place it has previously been. The exact sparseness of the delayedstate information matrix is in contrast to other recent featurebased SLAM information algorithms, such as sparse extended information filter or thin junctiontree filter, since these methods have to make approximations in order to force the featurebased SLAM information matrix to be sparse. The benefit of the exact sparsity of the delayedstate framework is that it allows one to take advantage of the information space parameterization without incurring any sparse approximation error. Therefore, it can produce equivalent results to the fullcovariance solution. The approach is validated experimentally using monocular imagery for two datasets: a testtank experiment with ground truth, and a remotely operated vehicle survey of the RMS Titanic. Index Terms—Information filters, Kalman filtering, machine vision, mobile robot motion planning, mobile robots, recursive estimation, robot vision systems, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), underwater vehicles. I.
Computing Rectifying Homographies for Stereo Vision
, 1999
"... Image rectification is the process of applying a pair of 2 dimensional projective transforms, or homographies, to a pair of images whose epipolar geometry is known so that epipolar lines in the original images map to horizontally aligned lines in the transformed images. We propose a novel technique ..."
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Cited by 97 (2 self)
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Image rectification is the process of applying a pair of 2 dimensional projective transforms, or homographies, to a pair of images whose epipolar geometry is known so that epipolar lines in the original images map to horizontally aligned lines in the transformed images. We propose a novel technique for image rectification based on geometrically well defined criteria such that image distortion due to rectification is minimized. This is achieved by decomposing each homography into a specialized projective transform, a similarity transform, followed by a shearing transform. The effect of image distortion at each stage is carefully considered.