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25
Combining fuzzy information from multiple systems, IBM
, 1995
"... In a traditional database system, the result of a query is a set of values (those values that satisfy the query). In other data servers, such as a system with queries baaed on image content, or many text retrieval systems, the result of a query is a sorted list. For example, in the case of a system ..."
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Cited by 331 (6 self)
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In a traditional database system, the result of a query is a set of values (those values that satisfy the query). In other data servers, such as a system with queries baaed on image content, or many text retrieval systems, the result of a query is a sorted list. For example, in the case of a system with queries based on image content, the query might aak for objects that are a particular shade of red, and the result of the query would be a sorted list of objects in the database, sorted by how well the color of the object matches that given in the query. A multimedia system must somehow synthesize both types of queries (those whose result is a set, and those whose result is a sorted list) in a consistent manner. In this paper we discuss the solution adopted by Garlic, a multimedia information system being developed at
Trust management for the semantic web
 In ISWC
, 2003
"... Abstract. Though research on the Semantic Web has progressed at a steady pace, its promise has yet to be realized. One major difficulty is that, by its very nature, the Semantic Web is a large, uncensored system to which anyone may contribute. This raises the question of how much credence to give ea ..."
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Cited by 196 (3 self)
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Abstract. Though research on the Semantic Web has progressed at a steady pace, its promise has yet to be realized. One major difficulty is that, by its very nature, the Semantic Web is a large, uncensored system to which anyone may contribute. This raises the question of how much credence to give each source. We cannot expect each user to know the trustworthiness of each source, nor would we want to assign topdown or global credibility values due to the subjective nature of trust. We tackle this problem by employing a web of trust, in which each user provides personal trust values for a small number of other users. We compose these trusts to compute the trust a user should place in any other user in the network. A user is not assigned a single trust rank. Instead, different users may have different trust values for the same user. We define properties for combination functions which merge such trusts, and define a class of functions for which merging may be done locally while maintaining these properties. We give examples of specific functions and apply them to data from Epinions and our BibServ bibliography server. Experiments confirm that the methods are robust to noise, and do not put unreasonable expectations on users. We hope that these methods will help move the Semantic Web closer to fulfilling its promise. 1.
Reasoning within Fuzzy Description Logics
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 2001
"... Description Logics (DLs) are suitable, wellknown, logics for managing structured knowledge. They allow reasoning about individuals and well defined concepts, i.e. set of individuals with common properties. The experience in using DLs in applications has shown that in many cases we would like to ext ..."
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Cited by 151 (21 self)
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Description Logics (DLs) are suitable, wellknown, logics for managing structured knowledge. They allow reasoning about individuals and well defined concepts, i.e. set of individuals with common properties. The experience in using DLs in applications has shown that in many cases we would like to extend their capabilities. In particular, their use in the context of Multimedia Information Retrieval (MIR) leads to the convincement that such DLs should allow the treatment of the inherent imprecision in multimedia object content representation and retrieval. In this paper we will present a fuzzy extension of ALC, combining...
Soft Computing: the Convergence of Emerging Reasoning Technologies
 Soft Computing
, 1997
"... The term Soft Computing (SC) represents the combination of emerging problemsolving technologies such as Fuzzy Logic (FL), Probabilistic Reasoning (PR), Neural Networks (NNs), and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Each of these technologies provide us with complementary reasoning and searching methods to so ..."
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Cited by 50 (8 self)
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The term Soft Computing (SC) represents the combination of emerging problemsolving technologies such as Fuzzy Logic (FL), Probabilistic Reasoning (PR), Neural Networks (NNs), and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Each of these technologies provide us with complementary reasoning and searching methods to solve complex, realworld problems. After a brief description of each of these technologies, we will analyze some of their most useful combinations, such as the use of FL to control GAs and NNs parameters; the application of GAs to evolve NNs (topologies or weights) or to tune FL controllers; and the implementation of FL controllers as NNs tuned by backpropagationtype algorithms.
Fuzzy sets and probability : Misunderstandings, bridges and gaps
 In Proceedings of the Second IEEE Conference on Fuzzy Systems
, 1993
"... This paper is meant to survey the literature pertaining to this debate, and to try to overcome misunderstandings and to supply access to many basic references that have addressed the "probability versus fuzzy set" challenge. This problem has not a single facet, as will be claimed here. Moreover it s ..."
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Cited by 39 (5 self)
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This paper is meant to survey the literature pertaining to this debate, and to try to overcome misunderstandings and to supply access to many basic references that have addressed the "probability versus fuzzy set" challenge. This problem has not a single facet, as will be claimed here. Moreover it seems that a lot of controversies might have been avoided if protagonists had been patient enough to build a common language and to share their scientific backgrounds. The main points made here are as follows. i) Fuzzy set theory is a consistent body of mathematical tools. ii) Although fuzzy sets and probability measures are distinct, several bridges relating them have been proposed that should reconcile opposite points of view ; especially possibility theory stands at the crossroads between fuzzy sets and probability theory. iii) Mathematical objects that behave like fuzzy sets exist in probability theory. It does not mean that fuzziness is reducible to randomness. Indeed iv) there are ways of approaching fuzzy sets and possibility theory that owe nothing to probability theory. Interpretations of probability theory are multiple especially frequentist versus subjectivist views (Fine [31]) ; several interpretations of fuzzy sets also exist. Some interpretations of fuzzy sets are in agreement with probability calculus and some are not. The paper is structured as follows : first we address some classical misunderstandings between fuzzy sets and probabilities. They must be solved before any discussion can take place. Then we consider probabilistic interpretations of membership functions, that may help in membership function assessment. We also point out nonprobabilistic interpretations of fuzzy sets. The next section examines the literature on possibilityprobability transformati...
A decision theoretic framework for approximating concepts
 International Journal of Manmachine Studies
, 1992
"... This paper explores the implications of approximating a concept based on the Bayesian decision procedure, which provides a plausible unification of the fuzzy set and rough set approaches for approximating a concept. We show that if a given concept is approximated by one set, the same result given by ..."
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Cited by 36 (20 self)
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This paper explores the implications of approximating a concept based on the Bayesian decision procedure, which provides a plausible unification of the fuzzy set and rough set approaches for approximating a concept. We show that if a given concept is approximated by one set, the same result given by the αcut in the fuzzy set theory is obtained. On the other hand, if a given concept is approximated by two sets, we can derive both the algebraic and probabilistic rough set approximations. Moreover, based on the well known principle of maximum (minimum) entropy, we give a useful interpretation of fuzzy intersection and union. Our results enhance the understanding and broaden the applications of both fuzzy and rough sets. 1.
The Interpretation of Fuzziness
 IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
, 1996
"... From laserscanned data to feature human model: a system based on ..."
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Cited by 25 (13 self)
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From laserscanned data to feature human model: a system based on
What nonlinearity to choose? Mathematical foundations of fuzzy control
 Proceedings of the 1992 International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Intelligent Control
, 1992
"... Abstract. Fuzzy control is a very successful way to transform the expert’s knowledge of the type “if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible ” into an actual control. To apply this transformation one must: 1) choose fuzzy varia ..."
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Cited by 25 (18 self)
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Abstract. Fuzzy control is a very successful way to transform the expert’s knowledge of the type “if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible ” into an actual control. To apply this transformation one must: 1) choose fuzzy variables corresponding to words like “small”, “big”; 2) choose operations corresponding to “and ” and “or”; 3) choose a method that transforms the resulting fuzzy variable for a into a single value ā. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to nonlinear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. We develop a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: 1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); 2) explain a rather mysterious fact that the fuzzy control based on the experts’ knowledge is often better than the control by these same experts; 3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work. Perspectives of space applications will be also discussed.
Can we enforce full compositionality in uncertainty calculi
 In: Proc of the 11th nat conf on artificial intelligence (AAAI94). AAAI Press/MIT Press, Menlo Park/Cambridge, pp 149–154
, 1994
"... At AAAI’93, Elkan has claimed to have a result trivializing fuzzy logic. This trivialization is based on too strong a view of equivalence in fuzzy logic and relates to a fully compositional treatment of uncertainty. Such a treatment is shown to be impossible in this paper. We emphasize the distincti ..."
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Cited by 18 (2 self)
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At AAAI’93, Elkan has claimed to have a result trivializing fuzzy logic. This trivialization is based on too strong a view of equivalence in fuzzy logic and relates to a fully compositional treatment of uncertainty. Such a treatment is shown to be impossible in this paper. We emphasize the distinction between i) degrees of partial truth which are allowed to be truth functional and which pertain to gradual (or fuzzy) propositions, and ii) degrees of uncertainty which cannot be compositional with respect to all the connectives when attached to classical propositions. This distinction is exemplified by the difference between fuzzy logic and possibilistic logic. We also investigate an almost compositional uncertainty calculus, but it is shown to lack expressiveness. I.
A Formula for Incorporating Weights into Scoring Rules
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1998
"... A "scoring rule" is an assignment of a value to every tuple (of varying sizes). This paper is concerned with the issue of how to modify a scoring rule to apply to the case where weights are assigned to the importance of each argument. We give an explicit formula for incorporating weights that can be ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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A "scoring rule" is an assignment of a value to every tuple (of varying sizes). This paper is concerned with the issue of how to modify a scoring rule to apply to the case where weights are assigned to the importance of each argument. We give an explicit formula for incorporating weights that can be applied no matter what the underlying scoring rule is. The formula is surprisingly simple, in that it involves far fewer terms than one might have guessed. It has three further desirable properties. The first desirable property is that when all of the weights are equal, then the result is obtained by simply using the underlying scoring rule. Intuitively, this says that when all of the weights are equal, then this is the same as considering the unweighted case. The second desirable property is that if a particular argument has zero weight, then that argument can be dropped without affecting the value of the result. The third desirable property is that the value of the result is a continuous ...