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Uniqueness and symmetry in problems of optimally dense packings
"... We analyze the general problem of determining optimally dense packings, in a Euclidean or hyperbolic space, of congruent copies of some fixed finite set of bodies. We are strongly guided by examples of aperiodic tilings in Euclidean space and a detailed analysis of a new family of examples in the hy ..."
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We analyze the general problem of determining optimally dense packings, in a Euclidean or hyperbolic space, of congruent copies of some fixed finite set of bodies. We are strongly guided by examples of aperiodic tilings in Euclidean space and a detailed analysis of a new family of examples in the hyperbolic plane. Our goal is to understand qualitative features of such optimum density problems, in particular the appropriate meaning of the uniqueness of solutions, and the role of symmetry in classfying optimally dense packings.
Gödel on computability
"... Around 1950, both Gödel and Turing wrote papers for broader audiences. 1 Gödel drew in his 1951 dramatic philosophical conclusions from the general formulation of his second incompleteness theorem. These conclusions concerned the nature of mathematics and the human mind. The general formulation of t ..."
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Around 1950, both Gödel and Turing wrote papers for broader audiences. 1 Gödel drew in his 1951 dramatic philosophical conclusions from the general formulation of his second incompleteness theorem. These conclusions concerned the nature of mathematics and the human mind. The general formulation of the second theorem was explicitly based on Turing’s 1936 reduction of finite procedures to machine computations. Turing gave in his 1954 an understated analysis of finite procedures in terms of Post production systems. This analysis, prima facie quite different from that given in 1936, served as the basis for an exposition of various unsolvable problems. Turing had addressed issues of mentality and intelligence in contemporaneous essays, the best known of which is of course Computing machinery and intelligence. Gödel’s and Turing’s considerations from this period intersect through their attempt, on the one hand, to analyze finite, mechanical procedures and, on the other hand, to approach mental phenomena in a scientific way. Neuroscience or brain science was an important component of the latter for both: Gödel’s remarks in the Gibbs Lecture as well as in his later conversations with Wang and Turing’s Intelligent Machinery can serve as clear evidence for that. 2 Both men were convinced that some mental processes are not mechanical, in the sense that Turing machines cannot mimic them. For Gödel, such processes were to be found in mathematical experience and he was led to the conclusion that mind is separate from matter. Turing simply noted that for a machine or a brain it is not enough to be converted into a universal (Turing) machine in order to become intelligent: “discipline”, the characteristic
Constants of Weitzenböck derivations and invariants of unipotent transformations acting on relatively free algebras
 J. Algebra
"... Abstract. In commutative algebra, a Weitzenböck derivation is a nonzero triangular linear derivation of the polynomial algebra K[x1,..., xm] in several variables over a field K of characteristic 0. The classical theorem of Weitzenböck states that the algebra of constants is finitely generated. (This ..."
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Abstract. In commutative algebra, a Weitzenböck derivation is a nonzero triangular linear derivation of the polynomial algebra K[x1,..., xm] in several variables over a field K of characteristic 0. The classical theorem of Weitzenböck states that the algebra of constants is finitely generated. (This algebra coincides with the algebra of invariants of a single unipotent transformation.) In this paper we study the problem of finite generation of the algebras of constants of triangular linear derivations of finitely generated (not necessarily commutative or associative) algebras over K assuming that the algebras are free in some sense (in most of the cases relatively free algebras in varieties of associative or Lie algebras). In this case the algebra of constants also coincides with the algebra of invariants of some unipotent transformation. The main results are the following: 1. We show that the subalgebra of constants of a factor algebra can be lifted to the subalgebra of constants. 2. For all varieties of associative algebras which are not nilpotent in Lie sense the subalgebras of constants of the relatively free algebras of rank ≥ 2 are not finitely generated. 3. We describe the generators of the subalgebra of constants for all factor algebras K〈x, y〉/I modulo a GL2(K)invariant ideal I. 4. Applying known results from commutative algebra, we construct classes of automorphisms of the algebra generated by two generic 2 × 2 matrices. We obtain also some partial results on relatively free Lie algebras. 1.
Quantitative theory of ordinary differential equations and tangential Hilbert 16th problem, ArXiv Preprint math.DS/0104140
 Department of Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O.B. 26, Rehovot 76100, Israel Email address: yakov@wisdom.weizmann.ac.il WWW
, 2001
"... Abstract. These highly informal lecture notes aim at introducing and explaining several closely related problems on zeros of analytic functions defined by ordinary differential equations and systems of such equations. The main incentive for this study was its potential application to the tangential ..."
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Abstract. These highly informal lecture notes aim at introducing and explaining several closely related problems on zeros of analytic functions defined by ordinary differential equations and systems of such equations. The main incentive for this study was its potential application to the tangential Hilbert 16th problem on zeros of complete Abelian integrals. The exposition consists mostly of examples illustrating various phenomena related to this problem. Sometimes these examples give an insight concerning the proofs, though the complete exposition of the latter is mostly relegated to separate expositions.