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17
PolynomialTime Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer
 SIAM J. on Computing
, 1997
"... A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time by at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. ..."
Abstract

Cited by 883 (2 self)
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A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time by at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. This paper considers factoring integers and finding discrete logarithms, two problems which are generally thought to be hard on a classical computer and which have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. Efficient randomized algorithms are given for these two problems on a hypothetical quantum computer. These algorithms take a number of steps polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored.
Simulating Physics with Computers
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1982
"... A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. ..."
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Cited by 396 (1 self)
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A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. This paper considers factoring integers and finding discrete logarithms, two problems which are generally thought to be hard on a classical computer and have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. Efficient randomized algorithms are given for these two problems on a hypothetical quantum computer. These algorithms take a number of steps polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored. AMS subject classifications: 82P10, 11Y05, 68Q10. 1 Introduction One of the first results in the mathematics of computation, which underlies the subsequent development of much of theoretical computer science, was the distinction between computable and ...
Quantum measurements and the Abelian stabilizer problem
"... We present a polynomial quantum algorithm for the Abelian stabilizer problem which includes both factoring and the discrete logarithm. Thus we extend famous Shor’s results [7]. Our method is based on a procedure for measuring an eigenvalue of a unitary operator. Another application of this procedure ..."
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Cited by 147 (0 self)
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We present a polynomial quantum algorithm for the Abelian stabilizer problem which includes both factoring and the discrete logarithm. Thus we extend famous Shor’s results [7]. Our method is based on a procedure for measuring an eigenvalue of a unitary operator. Another application of this procedure is a polynomial quantum Fourier transform algorithm for an arbitrary finite Abelian group. The paper also contains a rather detailed introduction to the theory of quantum computation.
Oracle quantum computing
 Brassard & U.Vazirani, Strengths and weaknesses of quantum computing
, 1994
"... \Because nature isn't classical, dammit..." ..."
Toward An Architecture For Quantum Programming
, 2003
"... It is becoming increasingly clear that, if a useful device for quantum computation will ever be built, it will be embodied by a classical computing machine with control over a truly quantum subsystem, this apparatus performing a mixture of classical and quantum computation. This paper investigates ..."
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Cited by 41 (0 self)
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It is becoming increasingly clear that, if a useful device for quantum computation will ever be built, it will be embodied by a classical computing machine with control over a truly quantum subsystem, this apparatus performing a mixture of classical and quantum computation. This paper investigates a possible approach to the problem of programming such machines: a template high level quantum language is presented which complements a generic general purpose classical language with a set of quantum primitives.
Information Distance
, 1997
"... While Kolmogorov complexity is the accepted absolute measure of information content in an individual finite object, a similarly absolute notion is needed for the information distance between two individual objects, for example, two pictures. We give several natural definitions of a universal inf ..."
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Cited by 36 (4 self)
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While Kolmogorov complexity is the accepted absolute measure of information content in an individual finite object, a similarly absolute notion is needed for the information distance between two individual objects, for example, two pictures. We give several natural definitions of a universal information metric, based on length of shortest programs for either ordinary computations or reversible (dissipationless) computations. It turns out that these definitions are equivalent up to an additive logarithmic term. We show that the information distance is a universal cognitive similarity distance. We investigate the maximal correlation of the shortest programs involved, the maximal uncorrelation of programs (a generalization of the SlepianWolf theorem of classical information theory), and the density properties of the discrete metric spaces induced by the information distances. A related distance measures the amount of nonreversibility of a computation. Using the physical theo...
Reversibility and adiabatic computation: trading time and space for energy
 PROC ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, SERIES A
, 1997
"... Future miniaturization and mobilization of computing devices requires energy parsimonious ‘adiabatic’ computation. This is contingent on logical reversibility of computation. An example is the idea of quantum computations which are reversible except for the irreversible observation steps. We propose ..."
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Cited by 34 (12 self)
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Future miniaturization and mobilization of computing devices requires energy parsimonious ‘adiabatic’ computation. This is contingent on logical reversibility of computation. An example is the idea of quantum computations which are reversible except for the irreversible observation steps. We propose to study quantitatively the exchange of computational resources like time and space for irreversibility in computations. Reversible simulations of irreversible computations are memory intensive. Such (polynomial time) simulations are analysed here in terms of ‘reversible ’ pebble games. We show that Bennett’s pebbling strategy uses least additional space for the greatest number of simulated steps. We derive a tradeoff for storage space versus irreversible erasure. Next we consider reversible computation itself. An alternative proof is provided for the precise expression of the ultimate irreversibility cost of an otherwise reversible computation without restrictions on time and space use. A timeirreversibility tradeoff hierarchy in the exponential time region is exhibited. Finally, extreme timeirreversibility tradeoffs for reversible computations in the thoroughly unrealistic range of computable versus noncomputable timebounds are given.
Quantum Computation
 In Annual Review of Computational Physics VI, D. Stauffer, Ed., World Scientific
, 1999
"... In the last few years, theoretical study of quantum systems serving as computational devices has achieved tremendous progress. We now have strong theoretical evidence that quantum computers, if built, might be used as a dramatically powerful computational tool, capable of performing tasks which seem ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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In the last few years, theoretical study of quantum systems serving as computational devices has achieved tremendous progress. We now have strong theoretical evidence that quantum computers, if built, might be used as a dramatically powerful computational tool, capable of performing tasks which seem intractable for classical computers. This review is about to tell the story of theoretical quantum computation. I left out the developing topic of experimental realizations of the model, and neglected other closely related topics which are quantum information and quantum communication. As a result of narrowing the scope of this paper, I hope it has gained the benefit of being an almost self contained introduction to the exciting field of quantum computation. The review begins with background on theoretical computer science, Turing machines and Boolean circuits. In light of these models, I define quantum computers, and discuss the issue of universal quantum gates. Quantum algorithms, including Shor’s factorization algorithm and Grover’s algorithm for searching databases, are explained. I will devote much attention to understanding what the origins of the quantum computational power are, and what the limits of this power are. Finally, I describe the recent theoretical results which show that quantum computers maintain their complexity power even in the presence of noise, inaccuracies and finite precision. This question cannot be separated from that of quantum complexity, because any realistic model will inevitably be subject to such inaccuracies. I tried to put all results in their context, asking what the implications to other issues in computer science and physics are. In the end of this review I make these connections explicit, discussing the possible implications of quantum computation on fundamental physical questions, such as the transition from quantum to classical physics. 1
Reversible Simulation of Irreversible Computation
 Physica D
, 1996
"... This paper takes up this suggestion to analyze timespace and spaceirreversibility tradeoffs. It completely characterizes the realizable pebble configurations of the reversible pebble games (they encode the reachable instantaneous descriptions of a Turing machine reversibly simulating an irreversib ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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This paper takes up this suggestion to analyze timespace and spaceirreversibility tradeoffs. It completely characterizes the realizable pebble configurations of the reversible pebble games (they encode the reachable instantaneous descriptions of a Turing machine reversibly simulating an irreversible computation). As corollary we obtain Bennett's earlier [3] simulaing Group Nr. 8556, and by NWO through NFI Project ALADDIN under Contract number NF 62376 and NSERC under International Scientific Exchange Award ISE0125663. Affiliations are CWI and the University of Amsterdam. tion and a first proof that this simulation is a spaceoptimal pebble game. It also introduces irreversible steps and gives a theorem on the tradeoff between the number of allowed irreversible steps and the memory gain in the pebble game. For such a tradeoff the limited irreversible actions have to take place at precise times during the reversible simulation, and cannot be delayed to be executed all together at the end of the computation (as is possible in computations without time or space resource bounds). Finally, in all such reversible simulations it is assumed that the number of steps to be simulated is known in advance and used to construct the simulation (for that number of steps). We show how to reversibly simulate an irreversible computation of unknown computing time, using the same order of magnitude of simulation time. 1.1 Reversible Turing Machines In the standard model of a Turing machine the elementary operations are rules in quadruple format (p; s; a; q) meaning that if the finite control is in state p