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567
Shape and motion from image streams under orthography: a factorization method
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1992
"... Inferring scene geometry and camera motion from a stream of images is possible in principle, but is an illconditioned problem when the objects are distant with respect to their size. We have developed a factorization method that can overcome this difficulty by recovering shape and motion under orth ..."
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Cited by 894 (37 self)
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Inferring scene geometry and camera motion from a stream of images is possible in principle, but is an illconditioned problem when the objects are distant with respect to their size. We have developed a factorization method that can overcome this difficulty by recovering shape and motion under orthography without computing depth as an intermediate step. An image stream can be represented by the 2FxP measurement matrix of the image coordinates of P points tracked through F frames. We show that under orthographic projection this matrix is of rank 3. Based on this observation, the factorization method uses the singularvalue decomposition technique to factor the measurement matrix into two matrices which represent object shape and camera rotation respectively. Two of the three translation components are computed in a preprocessing stage. The method can also handle and obtain a full solution from a partially filledin measurement matrix that may result from occlusions or tracking failures. The method gives accurate results, and does not introduce smoothing in either shape or motion. We demonstrate this with a series of experiments on laboratory and outdoor image streams, with and without occlusions. 1
A Tutorial on Visual Servo Control
 IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation
, 1996
"... This paper provides a tutorial introduction to visual servo control of robotic manipulators. Since the topic spans many disciplines our goal is limited to providing a basic conceptual framework. We begin by reviewing the prerequisite topics from robotics and computer vision, including a brief review ..."
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Cited by 593 (19 self)
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This paper provides a tutorial introduction to visual servo control of robotic manipulators. Since the topic spans many disciplines our goal is limited to providing a basic conceptual framework. We begin by reviewing the prerequisite topics from robotics and computer vision, including a brief review of coordinate transformations, velocity representation, and a description of the geometric aspects of the image formation process. We then present a taxonomy of visual servo control systems. The two major classes of systems, positionbased and imagebased systems, are then discussed. Since any visual servo system must be capable of tracking image features in a sequence of images, we include an overview of featurebased and correlationbased methods for tracking. We conclude the tutorial with a number of observations on the current directions of the research field of visual servo control. 1 Introduction Today there are over 800,000 robots in the world, mostly working in factory environment...
Iterative point matching for registration of freeform curves and surfaces
, 1994
"... A heuristic method has been developed for registering two sets of 3D curves obtained by using an edgebased stereo system, or two dense 3D maps obtained by using a correlationbased stereo system. Geometric matching in general is a difficult unsolved problem in computer vision. Fortunately, in ma ..."
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Cited by 480 (6 self)
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A heuristic method has been developed for registering two sets of 3D curves obtained by using an edgebased stereo system, or two dense 3D maps obtained by using a correlationbased stereo system. Geometric matching in general is a difficult unsolved problem in computer vision. Fortunately, in many practical applications, some a priori knowledge exists which considerably simplifies the problem. In visual navigation, for example, the motion between successive positions is usually approximately known. From this initial estimate, our algorithm computes observer motion with very good precision, which is required for environment modeling (e.g., building a Digital Elevation Map). Objects are represented by a set of 3D points, which are considered as the samples of a surface. No constraint is imposed on the form of the objects. The proposed algorithm is based on iteratively matching points in one set to the closest points in the other. A statistical method based on the distance distribution is used to deal with outliers, occlusion, appearance and disappearance, which allows us to do subsetsubset matching. A leastsquares technique is used to estimate 3D motion from the point correspondences, which reduces the average distance between points in the two sets. Both synthetic and real data have been used to test the algorithm, and the results show that it is efficient and robust, and yields an accurate motion estimate.
Efficient Variants of the ICP Algorithm
 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON 3D DIGITAL IMAGING AND MODELING
, 2001
"... The ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm is widely used for geometric alignment of threedimensional models when an initial estimate of the relative pose is known. Many variants of ICP have been proposed, affecting all phases of the algorithm from the selection and matching of points to the minim ..."
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Cited by 447 (4 self)
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The ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm is widely used for geometric alignment of threedimensional models when an initial estimate of the relative pose is known. Many variants of ICP have been proposed, affecting all phases of the algorithm from the selection and matching of points to the minimization strategy. We enumerate and classify many of these variants, and evaluate their effect on the speed with which the correct alignment is reached. In order to improve convergence for nearlyflat meshes with small features, such as inscribed surfaces, we introduce a new variant based on uniform sampling of the space of normals. We conclude by proposing a combination of ICP variants optimized for high speed. We demonstrate an implementation that is able to align two range images in a few tens of milliseconds, assuming a good initial guess. This capability has potential application to realtime 3D model acquisition and modelbased tracking.
Euclidean reconstruction from uncalibrated views
 Applications of Invariance in Computer Vision
, 1993
"... The possibility of calibrating a camera from image data alone, based on matched points identified in a series of images by a moving camera was suggested by Mayband and Faugeras. This result implies the possibility of Euclidean reconstruction from a series of images with a moving camera, or equivalen ..."
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Cited by 233 (14 self)
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The possibility of calibrating a camera from image data alone, based on matched points identified in a series of images by a moving camera was suggested by Mayband and Faugeras. This result implies the possibility of Euclidean reconstruction from a series of images with a moving camera, or equivalently, Euclidean structurefrommotion from an uncalibrated camera. No tractable algorithm for implementing their methods for more than three images have been previously reported. This paper gives a practical algorithm for Euclidean reconstruction from several views with the same camera. The algorithm is demonstrated on synthetic and real data and is shown to behave very robustly in the presence of noise giving excellent calibration and reconstruction results. 1
Modal Matching for Correspondence and Recognition
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1995
"... Modal matching is a new method for establishing correspondences and computing canonical descriptions. The method is based on the idea of describing objects in terms of generalized symmetries, as defined by each object's eigenmodes. The resulting modal description is used for object recognition and c ..."
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Cited by 181 (6 self)
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Modal matching is a new method for establishing correspondences and computing canonical descriptions. The method is based on the idea of describing objects in terms of generalized symmetries, as defined by each object's eigenmodes. The resulting modal description is used for object recognition and categorization, where shape similarities are expressed as the amounts of modal deformation energy needed to align the two objects. In general, modes provide a globaltolocal ordering of shape deformation and thus allow for selecting which types of deformations are used in object alignment and comparison. In contrast to previous techniques, which required correspondence to be computed with an initial or prototype shape, modal matching utilizes a new type of finite element formulation that allows for an object's eigenmodes to be computed directly from available image information. This improved formulation provides greater generality and accuracy, and is applicable to data of any dimensionality. Correspondence results with 2D contour and point feature data are shown, and recognition experiments with 2D images of hand tools and airplanes are described.
Multiview Registration for Large Data Sets
, 1999
"... In this paper we present a multiview registration method for aligning range data. We first align scans pairwise with each other and use the pairwise alignments as constraints that the multiview step enforces while evenly diffusing the pairwise registration errors. This approach is especially suitabl ..."
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Cited by 178 (1 self)
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In this paper we present a multiview registration method for aligning range data. We first align scans pairwise with each other and use the pairwise alignments as constraints that the multiview step enforces while evenly diffusing the pairwise registration errors. This approach is especially suitable for registering large data sets, since using constraints from pairwise alignments does not require loading the entire data set into memory to perform the alignment. The alignment method is efficient, and it is less likely to get stuck into a local minimum than previous methods, and can be used in conjunction with any pairwise method based on aligning overlapping surface sections.
Making Faces
, 1998
"... We have created a system for capturing both the threedimensional geometry and color and shading information for human facial expressions. We use this data to reconstruct photorealistic, 3D animations of the captured expressions. The system uses a large set of sampling points on the face to accurate ..."
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Cited by 155 (2 self)
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We have created a system for capturing both the threedimensional geometry and color and shading information for human facial expressions. We use this data to reconstruct photorealistic, 3D animations of the captured expressions. The system uses a large set of sampling points on the face to accurately track the three dimensional deformations of the face. Simultaneously with the tracking of the geometric data, we capture multiple high resolution, registered video images of the face. These images are used to create a texture map sequence for a three dimensional polygonal face model which can then be rendered on standard 3D graphics hardware. The resulting facial animation is surprisingly lifelike and looks very much like the original live performance. Separating the capture of the geometry from the texture images eliminates much of the variance in the image data due to motion, which increases compression ratios. Although the primary emphasis of our work is not compression we have investigated the use of a novel method to compress the geometric data based on principal components analysis. The texture sequence is compressed using an MPEG4 video codec. Animations reconstructed from 512x512 pixel textures look good at data rates as low as 240 Kbits per second.
Relative Orientation
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1990
"... Abstract: Before corresponding points in images taken with two cameras can be used to recover distances to objects in a scene, one has to determine the position and orientation of one camera relative to the other. This is the classic photogrammetric problem of relative orientation, central to the in ..."
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Cited by 130 (2 self)
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Abstract: Before corresponding points in images taken with two cameras can be used to recover distances to objects in a scene, one has to determine the position and orientation of one camera relative to the other. This is the classic photogrammetric problem of relative orientation, central to the interpretation of binocular stereo information. Iterative methods for determining relative orientation were developed long ago; without them we would not have most of the topographic maps we do today. Relative orientation is also of importance in the recovery of motion and shape from an image sequence when successive frames are widely separated in time. Workers in motion vision are rediscovering some of the methods of photogrammetry. Described here is a simple iterative scheme for recovering relative orientation that, unlike existing methods, does not require a good initial guess for the baseline and the rotation. The data required is a pair of bundles of corresponding rays from the two projection centers to points in the scene. It is well known that at least five pairs of rays are needed. Less appears to be known about the existence of multiple solutions and their interpretation. These issues are discussed here. The unambiguous determination of all of the parameters of relative orientation is not possible when the observed points lie on a critical surface. These surfaces and their degenerate forms are analysed as well.
Tracking and Modeling NonRigid Objects with Rank Constraints
, 2001
"... This paper presents a novel solution for flowbased tracking and 3D reconstruction of deforming objects in monocular image sequences. A nonrigid 3D object undergoing rotation and deformation can be effectively approximated using a linear combination of 3D basis shapes. This puts a bound on the rank ..."
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Cited by 128 (6 self)
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This paper presents a novel solution for flowbased tracking and 3D reconstruction of deforming objects in monocular image sequences. A nonrigid 3D object undergoing rotation and deformation can be effectively approximated using a linear combination of 3D basis shapes. This puts a bound on the rank of the tracking matrix. The rank constraint is used to achieve robust and precise lowlevel optical flow estimation without prior knowledge of the 3D shape of the object. The bound on the rank is also exploited to handle occlusion at the tracking level leading to the possibility of recovering the complete trajectories of occluded/disoccluded points. Following the same lowrank principle, the resulting flow matrix can be factored to get the 3D pose, configuration coefficients, and 3D basis shapes. The flow matrix is factored in an iterative manner, looping between solving for pose, configuration, and basis shapes. The flowbased tracking is applied to several video sequences and provides the input to the 3D nonrigid reconstruction task. Additional results on synthetic data and comparisons to ground truth complete the experiments.