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Constraint Logic Programming: A Survey
"... Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a merger of two declarative paradigms: constraint solving and logic programming. Although a relatively new field, CLP has progressed in several quite different directions. In particular, the early fundamental concepts have been adapted to better serve in differe ..."
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Cited by 767 (23 self)
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Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a merger of two declarative paradigms: constraint solving and logic programming. Although a relatively new field, CLP has progressed in several quite different directions. In particular, the early fundamental concepts have been adapted to better serve in different areas of applications. In this survey of CLP, a primary goal is to give a systematic description of the major trends in terms of common fundamental concepts. The three main parts cover the theory, implementation issues, and programming for applications.
Logical foundations of objectoriented and framebased languages
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1995
"... We propose a novel formalism, called Frame Logic (abbr., Flogic), that accounts in a clean and declarative fashion for most of the structural aspects of objectoriented and framebased languages. These features include object identity, complex objects, inheritance, polymorphic types, query methods, ..."
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Cited by 763 (59 self)
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We propose a novel formalism, called Frame Logic (abbr., Flogic), that accounts in a clean and declarative fashion for most of the structural aspects of objectoriented and framebased languages. These features include object identity, complex objects, inheritance, polymorphic types, query methods, encapsulation, and others. In a sense, Flogic stands in the same relationship to the objectoriented paradigm as classical predicate calculus stands to relational programming. Flogic has a modeltheoretic semantics and a sound and complete resolutionbased proof theory. A small number of fundamental concepts that come from objectoriented programming have direct representation in Flogic; other, secondary aspects of this paradigm are easily modeled as well. The paper also discusses semantic issues pertaining to programming with a deductive objectoriented language based on a subset of Flogic.
Unification: A multidisciplinary survey
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1989
"... The unification problem and several variants are presented. Various algorithms and data structures are discussed. Research on unification arising in several areas of computer science is surveyed, these areas include theorem proving, logic programming, and natural language processing. Sections of the ..."
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Cited by 103 (0 self)
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The unification problem and several variants are presented. Various algorithms and data structures are discussed. Research on unification arising in several areas of computer science is surveyed, these areas include theorem proving, logic programming, and natural language processing. Sections of the paper include examples that highlight particular uses
Records for Logic Programming
 Journal of Logic Programming
, 1994
"... CFT is a new constraint system providing records as logical data structure for constraint (logic) programming. It can be seen as a generalization of the rational tree system employed in Prolog II, where finergrained constraints are used, and where subtrees are identified by keywords rather than by ..."
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Cited by 95 (17 self)
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CFT is a new constraint system providing records as logical data structure for constraint (logic) programming. It can be seen as a generalization of the rational tree system employed in Prolog II, where finergrained constraints are used, and where subtrees are identified by keywords rather than by position. CFT is defined by a firstorder structure consisting of socalled feature trees. Feature trees generalize the ordinary trees corresponding to firstorder terms by having their edges labeled with field names called features. The mathematical semantics given by the feature tree structure is complemented with a logical semantics given by five axiom schemes, which we conjecture to comprise a complete axiomatization of the feature tree structure. We present a decision method for CFT, which decides entailment / disentailment between possibly existentially quantified constraints. Since CFT satisfies the independence property, our decision method can also be employed for checking the sat...
Operational Semantics and Polymorphic Type Inference
, 1988
"... Three languages with polymorphic type disciplines are discussed, namely the *calculus with Milner's polymorphic type discipline; a language with imperative features (polymorphic references); and a skeletal module language with structures, signatures and functors. In each of the two first cases we ..."
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Cited by 92 (2 self)
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Three languages with polymorphic type disciplines are discussed, namely the *calculus with Milner's polymorphic type discipline; a language with imperative features (polymorphic references); and a skeletal module language with structures, signatures and functors. In each of the two first cases we show that the type inference system is consistent with an operational dynamic semantics. On the module level, polymorphic types correspond to signatures. There is a notion of principal signature. Socalled signature checking is the module level equivalent of type checking. In particular, there exists an algorithm which either fails or produces a principal signature.
Feature Constraint Logics for Unification Grammars
 Journal of Logic Programming
, 1992
"... This paper studies feature description languages that have been developed for use in unification grammars, logic programming and knowledge representation. The distinctive notational primitive of these languages are features that can be understood as unary partial functions on a domain of abstract ..."
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Cited by 83 (10 self)
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This paper studies feature description languages that have been developed for use in unification grammars, logic programming and knowledge representation. The distinctive notational primitive of these languages are features that can be understood as unary partial functions on a domain of abstract objects. We show that feature description languages can be captured naturally as sublanguages of firstorder predicate logic with equality and show the equivalence of a loose Tarski semantics with a fixed feature graph semantics for quantifierfree constraints. For quantifierfree constraints we give a constraint solving method and show the NPcompleteness of satisfiability checking. For general feature constraints with quantifiers satisfiability is shown to be undecidable. Moreover, we investigate an extension of the logic with sort predicates and setdenoting expressions called feature terms.
A Feature Logic with Subsorts
 LILOG Report 33, IWBS, IBM Deutschland
, 1992
"... This paper presents a set description logic with subsorts, feature selection (the inverse of unary function application), agreement, intersection, union and complement. We define a model theoretic open world semantics and show that sorted feature structures constitute a canonical model, that is, ..."
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Cited by 72 (4 self)
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This paper presents a set description logic with subsorts, feature selection (the inverse of unary function application), agreement, intersection, union and complement. We define a model theoretic open world semantics and show that sorted feature structures constitute a canonical model, that is, without loss of generality subsumption and consistency of set descriptions can be considered with respect to feature structures only. We show that deciding consistency of set descriptions is an NPcomplete problem. To appear in: J. Wedekind and C. Rohrer (eds.), Unification in Grammar. The MIT Press, 1992 This text is a minor revision of LILOG Report 33, May 1988, IBM Deutschland, IWBS, Postfach 800880, 7000 Stuttgart 80, Germany. The research reported here has been done while the author was with IBM Deutschland. The author's article [23] is a more recent work on feature logics. 1 1 Introduction This paper presents a set description logic that generalizes and integrates formalisms...
A Featurebased Constraint System for Logic Programming with Entailment
, 1992
"... This paper presents the constraint system FT, which we feel is an intriguing alternative to Herbrand both theoretically and practically. As does Herbrand, FT provides a universal data structure based on trees. However, the trees of FT (called feature trees) are more general than the trees of Herbran ..."
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Cited by 69 (20 self)
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This paper presents the constraint system FT, which we feel is an intriguing alternative to Herbrand both theoretically and practically. As does Herbrand, FT provides a universal data structure based on trees. However, the trees of FT (called feature trees) are more general than the trees of Herbrand (called constructor trees), and the constraints of FT are finer grained and of different expressivity. The basic notion of FT are functional attributes called features, which provide for recordlike descriptions of data avoiding the overspecification intrinsic in Herbrand's constructorbased descriptions. The feature tree structure fixes an algebraic semantics for FT. We will also establish a logical semantics, which is given by three axiom schemes fixing the firstorder theory FT. FT is a constraint system for logic programming, providing a test for unsatisfiability, and a test for entailment between constraints, which is needed for advanced control mechanisms. The two major technical con...
Le Fun: Logic, equations, and Functions
 In Proc. 4th IEEE Internat. Symposium on Logic Programming
, 1987
"... Abstract † We introduce a new paradigm for the integration of functional and logic programming. Unlike most current research, our approach is not based on extending unification to generalpurpose equation solving. Rather, we propose a computation delaying mechanism called residuation. This allows a ..."
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Cited by 44 (1 self)
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Abstract † We introduce a new paradigm for the integration of functional and logic programming. Unlike most current research, our approach is not based on extending unification to generalpurpose equation solving. Rather, we propose a computation delaying mechanism called residuation. This allows a clear distinction between functional evaluation and logical deduction. The former is based on the λcalculus, and the latter on Horn clause resolution. In clear contrast with equationsolving approaches, our model supports higherorder function evaluation and efficient compilation of both functional and logic programming expressions, without being plagued by nondeterministic termrewriting. In addition, residuation lends itself naturally to process synchronization and constrained search. Besides unification (equations), other residuations may be any grounddecidable goal, such as mutual exclusion (inequations), and comparisons (inequalities). We describe an implementation of the residuation paradigm as a prototype language called Le Fun—Logic, equations, and Functions.