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A type system for certified binaries
 In ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 2002
"... A certified binary is a value together with a proof that the value satisfies a given specification. Existing compilers that generate certified code have focused on simple memory and controlflow safety rather than more advanced properties. In this paper, we present a general framework for explicitly ..."
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Cited by 84 (12 self)
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A certified binary is a value together with a proof that the value satisfies a given specification. Existing compilers that generate certified code have focused on simple memory and controlflow safety rather than more advanced properties. In this paper, we present a general framework for explicitly representing complex propositions and proofs in typed intermediate and assembly languages. The new framework allows us to reason about certified programs that involve effects while still maintaining decidable typechecking. We show how to integrate an entire proof system (the calculus of inductive constructions) into a compiler intermediate language and how the intermediate language can undergo complex transformations (CPS and closure conversion) while preserving proofs represented in the type system. Our work provides a foundation for the process of automatically generating certified binaries in a typetheoretic framework. 1
TypeTheoretic Methodology For Practical Programming Languages
 DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, CORNELL UNIVERSITY
, 1998
"... The significance of type theory to the theory of programming languages has long been recognized. Advances in programming languages have often derived from understanding that stems from type theory. However, these applications of type theory to practical programming languages have been indirect; the ..."
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Cited by 23 (3 self)
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The significance of type theory to the theory of programming languages has long been recognized. Advances in programming languages have often derived from understanding that stems from type theory. However, these applications of type theory to practical programming languages have been indirect; the differences between practical languages and type theory have prevented direct connections between the two. This dissertation presents systematic techniques directly relating practical programming languages to type theory. These techniques allow programming languages to be interpreted in the rich mathematical domain of type theory. Such interpretations lead to semantics that are at once denotational and operational, combining the advantages of each, and they also lay the foundation for formal verification of computer programs in type theory. Previous type theories either have not provided adequate expressiveness to interpret practical languages, or have provided such expressiveness at the expense of essential features of the type theory. In particular, no previous type theory has supported a notion of partial functions (needed to interpret recursion in practical languages), and a notion of total functions and objects (needed to reason about data values), and an intrinsic notion of equality (needed for most interesting results). This dissertation presents the first type theory incorporating all three, and discusses issues arising in the design of that type theory. This type theory is used as the target of a typetheoretic semantics for a expressive programming calculus. This calculus may serve as an internal language for a variety of functional programming languages. The semantics is stated as a syntaxdirected embedding of the programming calculus into type theory. A critical point arising in both the type theory and the typetheoretic semantics is the issue of admissibility. Admissibility governs what types it is legal to form recursive functions over. To build a useful type theory for partial functions it is necessary to have a wide class of admissible types. In particular, it is necessary for all the types arising in the typetheoretic semantics to be admissible. In this dissertation I present a class of admissible types that is considerably wider than any previously known class.
Constructing Recursion Operators in Intuitionistic Type Theory
 Journal of Symbolic Computation
, 1984
"... MartinLöf's Intuitionistic Theory of Types is becoming popular for formal reasoning about computer programs. To handle recursion schemes other than primitive recursion, a theory of wellfounded relations is presented. Using primitive recursion over higher types, induction and recursion are for ..."
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Cited by 22 (5 self)
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MartinLöf's Intuitionistic Theory of Types is becoming popular for formal reasoning about computer programs. To handle recursion schemes other than primitive recursion, a theory of wellfounded relations is presented. Using primitive recursion over higher types, induction and recursion are formally derived for a large class of wellfounded relations. Included are < on natural numbers, and relations formed by inverse images, addition, multiplication, and exponentiation of other relations. The constructions are given in full detail to allow their use in theorem provers for Type Theory, such as Nuprl. The theory is compared with work in the field of ordinal recursion over higher types.
Foundations for the Implementation of HigherOrder Subtyping
, 1997
"... We show how to implement a calculus with higherorder subtyping and subkinding by replacing uses of implicit subsumption with explicit coercions. To ensure this can be done, a polymorphic function is adjusted to take, as an additional argument, a proof that its type constructor argument has the desi ..."
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Cited by 13 (6 self)
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We show how to implement a calculus with higherorder subtyping and subkinding by replacing uses of implicit subsumption with explicit coercions. To ensure this can be done, a polymorphic function is adjusted to take, as an additional argument, a proof that its type constructor argument has the desired kind. Such a proof is extracted from the derivation of a kinding judgement and may in turn require proof coercions, which are extracted from subkinding judgements. This technique is formalized as a typedirected translation from a calculus of higherorder subtyping to a subtypingfree calculus. This translation generalizes an existing result for secondorder subtyping calculi (such as F ). We also discuss two interpretations of subtyping, one that views it as type inclusion and another that views it as the existence of a wellbehaved coercion, and we show, by a typetheoretic construction, that our translation is the minimum consequence of shifting from the inclusion interpretation to th...
Admissibility of Fixpoint Induction over Partial Types
 Automated deduction  CADE15. Lect. Notes in Comp. Sci
, 1998
"... Partial types allow the reasoning about partial functions in type theory. The partial functions of main interest are recursively computed functions, which are commonly assigned types using fixpoint induction. However, fixpoint induction is valid only on admissible types. Previous work has shown many ..."
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Cited by 6 (2 self)
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Partial types allow the reasoning about partial functions in type theory. The partial functions of main interest are recursively computed functions, which are commonly assigned types using fixpoint induction. However, fixpoint induction is valid only on admissible types. Previous work has shown many types to be admissible, but has not shown any dependent products to be admissible. Disallowing recursion on dependent product types substantially reduces the expressiveness of the logic; for example, it prevents much reasoning about modules, objects and algebras. In this paper I present two new tools, predicateadmissibility and monotonicity, for showing types to be admissible. These tools show a wide class of types to be admissible; in particular, they show many dependent products to be admissible. This alleviates difficulties in applying partial types to theorem proving in practice. I also present a general least upper bound theorem for fixed points with regard to a computational approxim...
Programming Language Semantics in Foundational Type Theory
 In Proc. the IFIP TC2/WG2.2,2.3 International Conference on Programming Concepts and Methods (PROCOMET’98
, 1996
"... There are compelling benefits to using foundational type theory as a framework for programming language semantics. I give a semantics of an expressive programming calculus in the foundational type theory of Nuprl. Previous typetheoretic semantics have used less expressive type theories, or have sacr ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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There are compelling benefits to using foundational type theory as a framework for programming language semantics. I give a semantics of an expressive programming calculus in the foundational type theory of Nuprl. Previous typetheoretic semantics have used less expressive type theories, or have sacrificed important programming constructs such as recursion and modules. The primary mechanisms of this semantics are partial types, for typing recursion, set types, for encoding power and singleton kinds, which are used for subtyping and module programming, and very dependent function types, for encoding signatures. Keywords Semantics, program verification, type theory, functional programming 1 INTRODUCTION Type theory has become a popular framework for formal reasoning in computer science and has formed the basis for a number of automated deduction systems, including Automath, Nuprl, HOL and Coq, among others. In addition to formalizing mathematics, these systems are widely used for the a...
Decidability Extracted: SYNTHESIZING “CORRECTBYCONSTRUCTION” DECISION PROCEDURES FROM CONSTRUCTIVE PROOFS
, 1998
"... The topic of this thesis is the extraction of efficient and readable programs from formal constructive proofs of decidability. The proof methods employed to generate the efficient code are new and result in clean and readable Nuprl extracts for two nontrivial programs. They are based on the use of ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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The topic of this thesis is the extraction of efficient and readable programs from formal constructive proofs of decidability. The proof methods employed to generate the efficient code are new and result in clean and readable Nuprl extracts for two nontrivial programs. They are based on the use of Nuprl’s set type and techniques for extracting efficient programs from induction principles. The constructive formal theories required to express the decidability theorems are of independent interest. They formally circumscribe the mathematical knowledge needed to understand the derived algorithms. The formal theories express concepts that are taught at the senior college level. The decidability proofs themselves, depending on this material, are of interest and are presented in some detail. The proof of decidability of classical propositional logic is relative to a semantics based on Kleene’s strong threevalued logic. The constructive proof of intuitionistic decidability presented here is the first machine formalization of this proof. Theexposition reveals aspects of the Nuprl tactic collection relevant to the creation of readable proofs; clear extracts and efficient code are illustrated in the discussion of the proofs.
An Abstract Programming System
, 2008
"... The system PL permits the translation of abstract proofs of program correctness into programs in a variety of programming languages. A programming language satisfying certain axioms may be the target of such a translation. The system PL also permits the construction and proof of correctness of progr ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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The system PL permits the translation of abstract proofs of program correctness into programs in a variety of programming languages. A programming language satisfying certain axioms may be the target of such a translation. The system PL also permits the construction and proof of correctness of programs in an abstract programming language, and permits the translation of these programs into correct programs in a variety of languages. The abstract programming language has an imperative style of programming with assignment statements and sideeffects, to allow the efficient generation of code. The abstract programs may be written by humans and then translated, avoiding the need to write the same program repeatedly in different languages or even the same language. This system uses classical logic, is conceptually simple, and permits reasoning about nonterminating programs using ScottStrachey style denotational semantics.
Intel Corporation and
"... A certified binary is a value together with a proof that the value satisfies a given specification. Existing compilers that generate certified code have focused on simple memory and controlflow safety rather than more advanced properties. In this article, we present a general framework for explicit ..."
Abstract
 Add to MetaCart
A certified binary is a value together with a proof that the value satisfies a given specification. Existing compilers that generate certified code have focused on simple memory and controlflow safety rather than more advanced properties. In this article, we present a general framework for explicitly representing complex propositions and proofs in typed intermediate and assembly languages. The new framework allows us to reason about certified programs that involve effects while still maintaining decidable typechecking. We show how to integrate an entire proof system (the calculus of inductive constructions) into a compiler intermediate language and how the intermediate language can undergo complex transformations (CPS and closure conversion) while preserving proofs represented in the type system. Our work provides a foundation for the process of automatically generating certified binaries in a typetheoretic framework.