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The Linear TimeBranching Time Spectrum II  The semantics of sequential systems with silent moves
, 1993
"... ion Rule (KFAR) (Baeten, Bergstra & Klop [3]), expresses a global fairness assumption. It says that when possible a system will escape from any cycle of internal actions. Some form of KFAR is crucial for many protocal verifications with unreliable channels, and for that reason preorders and equivale ..."
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Cited by 290 (17 self)
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ion Rule (KFAR) (Baeten, Bergstra & Klop [3]), expresses a global fairness assumption. It says that when possible a system will escape from any cycle of internal actions. Some form of KFAR is crucial for many protocal verifications with unreliable channels, and for that reason preorders and equivalences that satisfy KFAR are of special interest. Must preorders and divergence sensitive ones cannot satisfy KFAR. In Bergstra, Klop & Olderog [7] it is shown that the combination of KFAR with failure semantics is inconsistent, but they formulate a weaker version of KFAR that is satisfied in failure maysemantics. Still the combination of KFAR \Gamma and the liveness requirement appears to require global testing, and is only satisfied in the semantics between contrasimulation (C) and stability respecting branching bisimulation (BB s ). These requirements would reduce the number of suitable preorders to 18. It is in general a good strategy to do your verifications using the finest preorde...
Branching Time and Abstraction in Bisimulation Semantics
 Journal of the ACM
, 1996
"... Abstract. In comparative concurrency semantics, one usually distinguishes between linear time and branching time semantic equivalences. Milner’s notion of ohsen~ation equirlalence is often mentioned as the standard example of a branching time equivalence. In this paper we investigate whether observa ..."
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Cited by 256 (14 self)
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Abstract. In comparative concurrency semantics, one usually distinguishes between linear time and branching time semantic equivalences. Milner’s notion of ohsen~ation equirlalence is often mentioned as the standard example of a branching time equivalence. In this paper we investigate whether observation equivalence really does respect the branching structure of processes, and find that in the presence of the unobservable action 7 of CCS this is not the case. Therefore, the notion of branching hisimulation equivalence is introduced which strongly preserves the branching structure of processes, in the sense that it preserves computations together with the potentials in all intermediate states that are passed through, even if silent moves are involved. On closed KSterms branching bisimulation congruence can be completely axiomatized by the single axiom scheme: a.(7.(y + z) + y) = a.(y + z) (where a ranges over all actions) and the usual laws for strong congruence. WC also establish that for sequential processes observation equivalence is not preserved under refinement of actions, whereas branching bisimulation is. For a large class of processes, it turns out that branching bisimulation and observation equivalence are the same. As far as we know, all protocols that have been verified in the setting of observation equivalence happen to fit in this class, and hence are also valid in the stronger setting of branching hisimulation equivalence.
The Linear TimeBranching Time Spectrum I  The Semantics of Concrete, Sequential Processes
 Handbook of Process Algebra, chapter 1
"... this paper various semantics in the linear time  branching time spectrum are presented in a uniform, modelindependent way. Restricted to the class of finitely branching, concrete, sequential processes, only fifteen of them turn out to be different, and most semantics found in the literature that ..."
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Cited by 95 (4 self)
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this paper various semantics in the linear time  branching time spectrum are presented in a uniform, modelindependent way. Restricted to the class of finitely branching, concrete, sequential processes, only fifteen of them turn out to be different, and most semantics found in the literature that can be defined uniformly in terms of action relations coincide with one of these fifteen. Several testing scenarios, motivating these semantics, are presented, phrased in terms of `button pushing experiments' on generative and reactive machines. Finally twelve of these semantics are applied to a simple language for finite, concrete, sequential, nondeterministic processes, and for each of them a complete axiomatization is provided.
Undecidable Equivalences for Basic Process Algebra
 Information and Computation
, 1991
"... A recent theorem [3, 7, 19] shows that strong bisimilarity is decidable for the class of normed BPA processes, which correspond to a class of contextfree grammars generating the fflfree contextfree languages. In [21] Huynh and Tian have shown that readiness and failure equivalence are undecidabl ..."
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Cited by 33 (4 self)
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A recent theorem [3, 7, 19] shows that strong bisimilarity is decidable for the class of normed BPA processes, which correspond to a class of contextfree grammars generating the fflfree contextfree languages. In [21] Huynh and Tian have shown that readiness and failure equivalence are undecidable for BPA processes. In this paper we examine all other equivalences in the linear/branching time hierarchy [13] and show that none of them are decidable for normed BPA processes. 1 Introduction In the field of process theory much attention has been devoted to the study of process calculi and in particular to behavioural semantics for these calculi. A variety of equiv Supported by the European Communities under RACE project no. 1046 (SPECS) and ESPRIT Basic Research Action 3006 (CONCUR).This paper was written during a visit of the first author to Edinburgh. y Supported via a position at Aalborg University and by the Danish Research Academy. 2 1 Introduction alences have been propose...
Undecidable Equivalences for Basic Parallel Processes
 13th Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1993
"... . Recent results show that strong bisimilarity is decidable for the class of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), which corresponds to the subset of CCS definable using recursion, action prefixing, nondeterminism and the full merge operator. In this paper we examine all other equivalences in the linear/b ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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. Recent results show that strong bisimilarity is decidable for the class of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), which corresponds to the subset of CCS definable using recursion, action prefixing, nondeterminism and the full merge operator. In this paper we examine all other equivalences in the linear/branching time hierarchy [12] and show that none of them are decidable for BPP. 1 Introduction Much attention has been devoted to the study of process calculi and in particular to behavioural semantics for these calculi. In order to capture the behavioural aspects of processes, a variety of equivalences have been proposed. Various criteria exist for comparing the merits and deficiencies of these equivalences. A systematic approach consists of classifying the equivalences according to their coarseness. For this purpose van Glabbeek proposed the linear/branching time spectrum which is illustrated in Figure 1 [12]. The least discriminating equivalences are at the bottom of the diagram. Arrows i...
Nested Semantics over Finite Trees are Equationally Hard
, 2003
"... This paper studies nested simulation and nested trace semantics over the language BCCSP, a basic formalism to express finite process behaviour. It is shown that none of these semantics affords finite (in)equational axiomatizations over BCCSP. In particular, for each of the nested semantics studied ..."
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Cited by 15 (11 self)
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This paper studies nested simulation and nested trace semantics over the language BCCSP, a basic formalism to express finite process behaviour. It is shown that none of these semantics affords finite (in)equational axiomatizations over BCCSP. In particular, for each of the nested semantics studied in this paper, the collection of sound, closed (in)equations over a singleton action set is not finitely based.
Ready to preorder: get your BCCSP axiomatization for free
 Proceedings of CALCO’07, volume 4624 of LNCS
, 2007
"... Abstract. This paper contributes to the study of the equational theory of the semantics in van Glabbeek’s linear time branching time spectrum over the language BCCSP, a basic process algebra for the description of finite synchronization trees. It offers an algorithm for producing a complete (respec ..."
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Cited by 13 (3 self)
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Abstract. This paper contributes to the study of the equational theory of the semantics in van Glabbeek’s linear time branching time spectrum over the language BCCSP, a basic process algebra for the description of finite synchronization trees. It offers an algorithm for producing a complete (respectively, groundcomplete) equational axiomatization of any behavioral congruence lying between ready simulation equivalence and partial traces equivalence from a complete (respectively, groundcomplete) inequational axiomatization of its underlying precongruence—that is, of the precongruence whose kernel is the equivalence. The algorithm preserves finiteness of the axiomatization when the set of actions is finite. 1
On finite alphabets and infinite bases: From ready pairs to possible worlds
 In Proceedings 7th Conference on Foundations of Software Science and Computation Structures (FOSSACS’04), Barcelona, LNCS 2987
, 2004
"... Abstract. We prove that if a finite alphabet of actions contains at least two elements, then the equational theory for the process algebra BCCSP modulo any semantics no coarser than readiness equivalence and no finer than possible worlds equivalence does not have a finite basis. This semantic range ..."
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Cited by 9 (7 self)
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Abstract. We prove that if a finite alphabet of actions contains at least two elements, then the equational theory for the process algebra BCCSP modulo any semantics no coarser than readiness equivalence and no finer than possible worlds equivalence does not have a finite basis. This semantic range includes ready trace equivalence. 1