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The graphbased logic of ERdiagrams and taming heterogeneity of semantic data models
, 1997
"... . The first goal of the paper is to explicate the formal logic underlying ERdiagrams, ERDlogic. It is shown that this logic is a logic of predicates over setandfunction diagrams, that is, a graphbased logic. Main principles of graphbased logics are developed, in particular, a principal distinct ..."
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. The first goal of the paper is to explicate the formal logic underlying ERdiagrams, ERDlogic. It is shown that this logic is a logic of predicates over setandfunction diagrams, that is, a graphbased logic. Main principles of graphbased logics are developed, in particular, a principal distinction between a logical specification as such and its visual presentation is carefully drawn and demonstrated in a number of examples. The approach is based on a generalization of the sketch logic developed in the mathematical category theory, our version was designed to adapt the idea for conceptual modeling. Following category theory, specifications of the language we propose are also called sketches, and so the ERDlogic is manifested as the sketch logic. The second goal of the paper is to demonstrate that the problem of semantic models heterogeneity can be naturally managed in the sketch framework. It is shown that data specifications in many of conventional semantic models can be consider...
The Arrow Manifesto: Towards software engineering based on comprehensible yet rigorous graphical specifications
"... . A novel formalizable specification paradigm is proposed which makes it possible to solve a lot of specification problems in software. The roots of the idea are in mathematical category theory; following its terminology we call our specifications sketches. Among the principal advantages of sketches ..."
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. A novel formalizable specification paradigm is proposed which makes it possible to solve a lot of specification problems in software. The roots of the idea are in mathematical category theory; following its terminology we call our specifications sketches. Among the principal advantages of sketches are the following. ffl Nice amalgamation of logical rigor and graphical evidence. Sketches are graphbased images yet they are precise formal specifications as rigor as, say, first order logic theories. ffl Universality, in the precise sense of the word. It can be mathematically proven that any specification whose semantic meaning can be formalized can be also expressed by a sketch. ffl Unifying power. Many of graphical specification languages can be simulated by sketches in the corresponding signature of diagram markers. ffl Semantic capabilities. The sketch language is inherently objectoriented and provides a quite natural way of specifying OO classreference schemas. ffl Easy and f...
Generalised Sketches as an algebraic graphbased framework for semantic modeling and database design
, 1997
"... . A graphbased specification language and the corresponding machinery are described as stating a basic framework for semantic modeling and database design. It is shown that a few challenging theoretical questions in the area, and some of hot practical problems as well, can be successfully approache ..."
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. A graphbased specification language and the corresponding machinery are described as stating a basic framework for semantic modeling and database design. It is shown that a few challenging theoretical questions in the area, and some of hot practical problems as well, can be successfully approached in the framework. The machinery has its origin in the classical sketches invented by Ehresmann and is close to their generalization recently proposed by Makkai. There are two essential distinctions from Makkai's sketches. One consists in a different  more direct  formalization of sketches that categorists (and database designers) usually draw. The second distinction is more fundamental and consists in introducing operational sketches specifying complex diagram operations over ordinary (predicate) sketches, correspondingly, models of operational sketches are diagram algebras. Together with the notion of parsing operational sketches, this is the main mathematical contribution of the pape...