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The number of Reidemeister Moves Needed for Unknotting
, 2008
"... There is a positive constant c1 such that for any diagram D representing the unknot, there is a sequence of at most 2 c1n Reidemeister moves that will convert it to a trivial knot diagram, where n is the number of crossings in D. A similar result holds for elementary moves on a polygonal knot K embe ..."
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Cited by 35 (11 self)
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There is a positive constant c1 such that for any diagram D representing the unknot, there is a sequence of at most 2 c1n Reidemeister moves that will convert it to a trivial knot diagram, where n is the number of crossings in D. A similar result holds for elementary moves on a polygonal knot K embedded in the 1skeleton of the interior of a compact, orientable, triangulated PL 3manifold M. There is a positive constant c2 such that for each t ≥ 1, if M consists of t tetrahedra, and K is unknotted, then there is a sequence of at most 2 c2t elementary moves in M which transforms K to a triangle contained inside one tetrahedron of M. We obtain explicit values for c1 and c2.
Permutation and Its Partial Transpose
, 2006
"... Permutation and its partial transpose play important roles in quantum information theory. The Werner state is recognized as a rational solution of the Yang–Baxter equation, and the isotropic state with an adjustable parameter is found to form a braid representation. The set of permutation’s partial ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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Permutation and its partial transpose play important roles in quantum information theory. The Werner state is recognized as a rational solution of the Yang–Baxter equation, and the isotropic state with an adjustable parameter is found to form a braid representation. The set of permutation’s partial transposes is an algebra called the “PPT ” algebra which guides the construction of multipartite symmetric states. The virtual knot theory having permutation as a virtual crossing provides a topological language describing quantum computation having permutation as a swap gate. In this paper, permutation’s partial transpose is identified with an idempotent of the Temperley–Lieb algebra. The algebra generated by permutation and its partial transpose is found to be the Brauer algebra. The linear combinations of identity, permutation and its partial transpose can form various projectors describing tangles; braid representations; virtual braid representations underlying common solutions of the braid relation and Yang–Baxter equations; and virtual Temperley–Lieb algebra which is articulated from the graphical viewpoint. They lead to our drawing a picture called the “ABPK” diagram describing knot theory in terms of its corresponding algebra, braid group and polynomial invariant. The paper also identifies nontrivial unitary braid representations with universal quantum gates, and derives a Hamiltonian to determine the evolution of a universal quantum gate, and further computes the Markov trace in terms of a universal quantum gate for a link invariant to detect linking numbers.
MINIMAL SETS OF REIDEMEISTER MOVES
, 908
"... Abstract. It is well known that any two diagrams representing the same oriented link are related by a finite sequence of Reidemeister moves Ω1, Ω2 and Ω3. Depending on orientations of fragments involved in the moves, one may distinguish 4 different versions of each of the Ω1 and Ω2 moves, and 8 vers ..."
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Abstract. It is well known that any two diagrams representing the same oriented link are related by a finite sequence of Reidemeister moves Ω1, Ω2 and Ω3. Depending on orientations of fragments involved in the moves, one may distinguish 4 different versions of each of the Ω1 and Ω2 moves, and 8 versions of the Ω3 move. We introduce a minimal generating set of four oriented Reidemeister moves, which includes two moves of type Ω1, one move of type Ω2 and one move of type Ω3. We then study other sets of moves, considering various sets with one move of type Ω3, and show that only few sets generate all Reidemeister moves. An unexpected nonequivalence of different Ω3 moves is discussed. 1.