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Logic Programming in a Fragment of Intuitionistic Linear Logic
"... When logic programming is based on the proof theory of intuitionistic logic, it is natural to allow implications in goals and in the bodies of clauses. Attempting to prove a goal of the form D ⊃ G from the context (set of formulas) Γ leads to an attempt to prove the goal G in the extended context Γ ..."
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Cited by 303 (40 self)
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When logic programming is based on the proof theory of intuitionistic logic, it is natural to allow implications in goals and in the bodies of clauses. Attempting to prove a goal of the form D ⊃ G from the context (set of formulas) Γ leads to an attempt to prove the goal G in the extended context Γ ∪ {D}. Thus during the bottomup search for a cutfree proof contexts, represented as the lefthand side of intuitionistic sequents, grow as stacks. While such an intuitionistic notion of context provides for elegant specifications of many computations, contexts can be made more expressive and flexible if they are based on linear logic. After presenting two equivalent formulations of a fragment of linear logic, we show that the fragment has a goaldirected interpretation, thereby partially justifying calling it a logic programming language. Logic programs based on the intuitionistic theory of hereditary Harrop formulas can be modularly embedded into this linear logic setting. Programming examples taken from theorem proving, natural language parsing, and data base programming are presented: each example requires a linear, rather than intuitionistic, notion of context to be modeled adequately. An interpreter for this logic programming language must address the problem of splitting contexts; that is, when attempting to prove a multiplicative conjunction (tensor), say G1 ⊗ G2, from the context ∆, the latter must be split into disjoint contexts ∆1 and ∆2 for which G1 follows from ∆1 and G2 follows from ∆2. Since there is an exponential number of such splits, it is important to delay the choice of a split as much as possible. A mechanism for the lazy splitting of contexts is presented based on viewing proof search as a process that takes a context, consumes part of it, and returns the rest (to be consumed elsewhere). In addition, we use collections of Kripke interpretations indexed by a commutative monoid to provide models for this logic programming language and show that logic programs admit a canonical model.
Ordered Linear Logic and Applications
, 2001
"... This work is dedicated to my parents. Acknowledgments Firstly, and foremost, I would like to thank my principal advisor, Frank Pfenning, for his patience with me, and for teaching me most of what I know about logic and type theory. I would also like to acknowledge some useful discussions with Kevin ..."
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Cited by 35 (0 self)
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This work is dedicated to my parents. Acknowledgments Firstly, and foremost, I would like to thank my principal advisor, Frank Pfenning, for his patience with me, and for teaching me most of what I know about logic and type theory. I would also like to acknowledge some useful discussions with Kevin Watkins which led me to simplify some of this work. Finally, I would like to thank my other advisor, John Reynolds, for all his kindness and support over the last five years. Abstract This thesis introduces a new logical system, ordered linear logic, which combines reasoning with unrestricted, linear, and ordered hypotheses. The logic conservatively extends (intuitionistic) linear logic, which contains both unrestricted and linear hypotheses, with a notion of ordered hypotheses. Ordered hypotheses must be used exactly once, subject to the order in which they were assumed (i.e., their order cannot be changed during the course of a derivation). This ordering constraint allows for logical representations of simple data structures such as stacks and queues. We construct ordered linear logic in the style of MartinL"of from the basic notion of a hypothetical judgement. We then show normalization for the system by constructing a sequent calculus presentation and proving cutelimination of the sequent system.
Natural Deduction for Intuitionistic NonCommutative Linear Logic
 Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Typed Lambda Calculi and Applications (TLCA'99
, 1999
"... We present a system of natural deduction and associated term calculus for intuitionistic noncommutative linear logic (INCLL) as a conservative extension of intuitionistic linear logic. We prove subject reduction and the existence of canonical forms in the implicational fragment. ..."
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Cited by 33 (15 self)
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We present a system of natural deduction and associated term calculus for intuitionistic noncommutative linear logic (INCLL) as a conservative extension of intuitionistic linear logic. We prove subject reduction and the existence of canonical forms in the implicational fragment.
Extending definite clause grammars with scoping constructs
 7th Int. Conf. Logic Programming
, 1990
"... Definite Clause Grammars (DCGs) have proved valuable to computational linguists since they can be used to specify phrase structured grammars. It is well known how to encode DCGs in Horn clauses. Some linguistic phenomena, such as fillergap dependencies, are difficult to account for in a completely ..."
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Cited by 25 (4 self)
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Definite Clause Grammars (DCGs) have proved valuable to computational linguists since they can be used to specify phrase structured grammars. It is well known how to encode DCGs in Horn clauses. Some linguistic phenomena, such as fillergap dependencies, are difficult to account for in a completely satisfactory way using simple phrase structured grammar. In the literature of logic grammars there have been several attempts to tackle this problem by making use of special arguments added to the DCG predicates corresponding to the grammatical symbols. In this paper we take a different line, in that we account for fillergap dependencies by encoding DCGs within hereditary Harrop formulas, an extension of Horn clauses (proposed elsewhere as a foundation for logic programming) where implicational goals and universally quantified goals are permitted. Under this approach, fillergap dependencies can be accounted for in terms of the operational semantics underlying hereditary Harrop formulas, in a way reminiscent of the treatment of such phenomena in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG). The main features involved in this new formulation of DCGs are mechanisms for providing scope to constants and program clauses along with a mild use of λterms and λconversion. 1
A Hypothetical Reasoning Algorithm for Linguistic Analysis
 Journal of Logic and Computation
, 1994
"... The Lambek calculus, an intuitionistic fragment of Linear Logic, has recently been rediscovered by linguists. Due to its builtin hypothetical reasoning mechanism, it allows for describing a certain range of those phenomena in natural language syntax which involve incomplete subphrases or moved cons ..."
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Cited by 16 (2 self)
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The Lambek calculus, an intuitionistic fragment of Linear Logic, has recently been rediscovered by linguists. Due to its builtin hypothetical reasoning mechanism, it allows for describing a certain range of those phenomena in natural language syntax which involve incomplete subphrases or moved constituents. Previously, it seemed unclear how to extent traditional parsing techniques in order to incorporate reasoning about incomplete phrases, without causing the undesired effect of derivational equivalences. It turned out that the Lambek calculus offers a framework to formulate equivalent but more implementationoriented calculi where this problem does not occur. In this paper, such a theorem prover for the Lambek calculus, i.e. a parser for Lambek categorial grammars, is defined. Permutations of proof steps which would cause derivational equivalence in a purely sequential formulation do not play a role in a (pseudo)parallel approach which is based on a lemma table or a "chart". At the...
HigherOrder Linear Logic Programming of Categorial Deduction’, Report de Recerca LSI–94–42–R, Departament de Llenguatges i
 Sistemes Informàtics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Morrill, Glyn: 1994b, Type Logical Grammar: Categorial Logic of Signs
"... We show how categorial deduction can be implemented in higherorder (linear) logic programming, thereby realising parsing as deduction for the associative and nonassociative Lambek calculi. This provides a method of solution to the parsing problem of Lambek categorial grammar applicable to a variet ..."
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Cited by 13 (4 self)
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We show how categorial deduction can be implemented in higherorder (linear) logic programming, thereby realising parsing as deduction for the associative and nonassociative Lambek calculi. This provides a method of solution to the parsing problem of Lambek categorial grammar applicable to a variety of its extensions. The present work deals with the parsing problem for Lambek calculus and its extensions as developed
Ordered Linear Logic Programming
, 1998
"... We begin with a review of intuitionistic noncommutative linear logic (INCLL), a refinement of linear logic with an inherent notion of order proposed by the authors in prior work. We then develop a logic programming interpretation for INCLL in two steps: (1) we give a system of ordered uniform deriv ..."
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Cited by 8 (6 self)
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We begin with a review of intuitionistic noncommutative linear logic (INCLL), a refinement of linear logic with an inherent notion of order proposed by the authors in prior work. We then develop a logic programming interpretation for INCLL in two steps: (1) we give a system of ordered uniform derivations which is sound and complete with respect to INCLL, and (2) we present a model of resource consumption which removes nondeterminism from ordered resource allocation during search for uniform derivations. We also illustrate the expressive power of the resulting ordered linear logic programming language through some examples, including programs for merge sort, insertion sort, and natural language parsing. 1 The authors can be reached at jpolakow@cs.cmu.edu and fp@cs.cmu.edu. This work was sponsored NSF Grants CCR9804014 and CCR9619584. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, ei...
Difference Lists and Difference Bags for Logic Programming of Categorial Deduction
"... We show how difference lists can be used for systematically compiled linear clauses for Lambek categorial grammar and its generalisations, in analogy with standard Horn clauses for CF grammar. We also consider use of difference bags for partitioning of linear sequents, and methods for ambiguity and ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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We show how difference lists can be used for systematically compiled linear clauses for Lambek categorial grammar and its generalisations, in analogy with standard Horn clauses for CF grammar. We also consider use of difference bags for partitioning of linear sequents, and methods for ambiguity and polymorphism.
Ordered Set Combinatory Categorial Grammar
"... In this paper, we discuss data from Greek that provide evidence in favour of SetCCG, a formalism which shares the attractive linguistic and computational aspects of CCG. ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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In this paper, we discuss data from Greek that provide evidence in favour of SetCCG, a formalism which shares the attractive linguistic and computational aspects of CCG.