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85
Compositional Pointer and Escape Analysis for Java Programs
 In Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference on ObjectOriented Programming Systems, Languages and Applications
, 1999
"... algorithm for Java programs. The algorithm is based on the abstraction of pointsto escape graphs, which characterize how local variables and elds in objects refer to other objects. Each pointsto escape graph also contains escape information, which characterizes how objects allocated in one region ..."
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Cited by 231 (28 self)
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algorithm for Java programs. The algorithm is based on the abstraction of pointsto escape graphs, which characterize how local variables and elds in objects refer to other objects. Each pointsto escape graph also contains escape information, which characterizes how objects allocated in one region of the program can escape to be accessed by another region. The algorithm is designed to analyze arbitrary regions of complete or incomplete programs, obtaining complete information for objects that do not escape the analyzed regions.
A Parameterized Type System for RaceFree Java Programs
 ACM CONFERENCE ON OBJECTORIENTED PROGRAMMING, SYSTEMS, LANGUAGES AND APPLICATIONS (OOPSLA), OCTOBER 2001
, 2001
"... ...programs; any welltyped program in our system is free of data races. Our type system is significantly more expressive than previous such type systems. In particular, our system lets programmers write generic code to implement a class, then create different objects of the same class that have dif ..."
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Cited by 196 (22 self)
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...programs; any welltyped program in our system is free of data races. Our type system is significantly more expressive than previous such type systems. In particular, our system lets programmers write generic code to implement a class, then create different objects of the same class that have different protection mechanisms. This flexibility enables programmers to reduce the number of unnecessary synchronization operations in a program without risking data races. We also support default types which reduce the burden of writing the extra type annotations. Our experience indicates that our system provides a promising approach to make multithreaded programs more reliable and efficient.
A Schema for Interprocedural Modification SideEffect Analysis With Pointer Aliasing
 In Proceedings of the SIGPLAN '93 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation
, 2001
"... The first interprocedural modification sideeffects analysis for C (MOD_C) that obtains better than worstcase precision on programs with generalpurpose pointer usage is presented with empirical results. The analysis consists of an algorithm schema corresponding to a family of MODC algorithms with ..."
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Cited by 131 (13 self)
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The first interprocedural modification sideeffects analysis for C (MOD_C) that obtains better than worstcase precision on programs with generalpurpose pointer usage is presented with empirical results. The analysis consists of an algorithm schema corresponding to a family of MODC algorithms with two independent phases: one for determining pointerinduced aliases and a subsequent one for propagating interprocedural side effects. These MOD_C algorithms are parameterized by the aliasing method used. The empirical results compare the performance of two dissimilar MOD_C algorithms: MOD_C(FSAlias) uses a flowsensitive, callingcontextsensitive interprocedural alias analysis [LR92]; MOD_C(FIAlias) uses a flowinsensitive, callingcontextinsensitive alias analysis which is much faster, but less accurate. These two algorithms were profiled on 45 programs ranging in size from 250 to 30,000 lines of C code, and the results demonstrate dramatically the possible costprecision tradeoffs. This first comparative implementation of MODC analyses offers insight into the differences between flow/contextsensitive and flow/contextinsensitive analyses. The analysis cost versus precision tradeoffs in sideeffect information obtained is reported. The results show surprisingly that the precision of flowsensitive sideeffect analysis is not always prohibitive in cost, and that the precision of flowinsensitive analysis is substantially better than worstcase estimates and seems sufficient for certain applications. On average MODC (FSAlias) for procedures and calls is in the range of 20% more precise than MODC (F IAlias); however, the performance was found to be at least an order of magnitude slower than MODC (F IAlias).
Removing Unnecessary Synchronization in Java
 In Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference on ObjectOriented Programming Systems, Languages and Applications
, 1999
"... Abstract. Java programs perform many synchronization operations on data structures. Some of these synchronizations are unnecessary; in particular, if an object is reachable only by a single thread, concurrent access is impossible and no synchronization is needed. We describe a flowinsensitive, cont ..."
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Cited by 117 (1 self)
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Abstract. Java programs perform many synchronization operations on data structures. Some of these synchronizations are unnecessary; in particular, if an object is reachable only by a single thread, concurrent access is impossible and no synchronization is needed. We describe a flowinsensitive, contextsensitive dataflow analysis that finds such situations and a global optimizing transformation that eliminates synchronizations on these objects. For every program in our suite of ten Java benchmarks consisting of SPECjvm98 and others, our system optimizes over 90 % of the alias sets containing at least one synchronized object. As a result, the dynamic frequency of synchronizations is reduced by up to 99%. For two benchmarks that perform synchronizations very frequently, this optimization leads to speedups of 36 % and 20%, respectively. 1.
Symbolic Bounds Analysis of Pointers, Array Indices, and Accessed Memory Regions
 PLDI 2000
, 2000
"... This paper presents a novel framework for the symbolic bounds analysis of pointers, array indices, and accessed memory regions. Our framework formulates each analysis problem as a system of inequality constraints between symbolic bound polynomials. It then reduces the constraint system to a linear p ..."
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Cited by 111 (14 self)
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This paper presents a novel framework for the symbolic bounds analysis of pointers, array indices, and accessed memory regions. Our framework formulates each analysis problem as a system of inequality constraints between symbolic bound polynomials. It then reduces the constraint system to a linear program. The solution to the linear program provides symbolic lower and upper bounds for the values of pointer and array index variables and for the regions of memory that each statement and procedure accesses. This approach eliminates fundamental problems associated with applying standard xedpoint approaches to symbolic analysis problems. Experimental results from our implemented compiler show that the analysis can solve several important problems, including static race detection, automatic parallelization, static detection of array bounds violations, elimination of array bounds checks, and reduction of the number of bits used to store computed values.
Bitwidth Analysis with Application to Silicon Compilation
, 2000
"... This paper introduces Bitwise, a compiler that minimizes the bitwidth  the number of bits used to representeach operand  for both integers and pointers in a program. By propagating static information both forward and backward in the program dataflowgraph,Bitwise frees the programmer from decla ..."
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Cited by 93 (0 self)
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This paper introduces Bitwise, a compiler that minimizes the bitwidth  the number of bits used to representeach operand  for both integers and pointers in a program. By propagating static information both forward and backward in the program dataflowgraph,Bitwise frees the programmer from declaring bitwidth invariants in cases where the compiler can determine bitwidths automatically. We find a rich opportunity for bitwidth reduction in modern multimedia and streaming application workloads. For new architectures that support subword quantities, we expect that our bitwidth reductions will savepower and increase processor performance. This paper
Exploiting Superword Level Parallelism with Multimedia Instruction Sets
 in Proceedings of the SIGPLAN ’00 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation
, 2000
"... Increasing focus on multimedia applications has prompted the addition of multimedia extensions to most existing generalpurpose microprocessors. This added functionality comes primarily in the addition of short SIMD instructions. Unfortunately, access to these instructions is limited to inline asse ..."
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Cited by 83 (8 self)
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Increasing focus on multimedia applications has prompted the addition of multimedia extensions to most existing generalpurpose microprocessors. This added functionality comes primarily in the addition of short SIMD instructions. Unfortunately, access to these instructions is limited to inline assembly and library calls. Some researchers have proposed using vector compilers as a means of exploiting multimedia instructions. Although vectorization technology is well understood, it is inherently complex and fragile. In addition, it is incapable of locating SIMDstyle parallelism within a basic block. In this paper we introduce the concept of Superword Level Parallelism(SLP), a novel way of viewing parallelism in multimedia applications. We believe SLP is fundamentally different from the looplevel parallelism exploited by traditional vector processing, and therefore warrants a different method for extracting it. We have developed a simple and robust compiler technique for detecting SLP that targets basic blocks rather than loop nests. As with techniques designed to extract ILP, ours is able to exploit parallelism both across loop iterations and within basic blocks. The result is an algorithm that provides excellent performance in several application domains. Experiments on scientific and multimedia benchmarks have yielded average performance improvements of 84%, and range as high as 253%.
Pointer analysis: Haven’t we solved this problem yet?
 PASTE'01
, 2001
"... During the past twentyone years, over seventyfive papers and nine Ph.D. theses have been published on pointer analysis. Given the tomes of work on this topic one may wonder, "Haven't we solved this problem yet?" With input from many researchers in the field, this paper describes issues related to ..."
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Cited by 82 (1 self)
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During the past twentyone years, over seventyfive papers and nine Ph.D. theses have been published on pointer analysis. Given the tomes of work on this topic one may wonder, "Haven't we solved this problem yet?" With input from many researchers in the field, this paper describes issues related to pointer analysis and remaining open problems.
A Generic Approach to the Static Analysis of Concurrent Programs with Procedures
, 2003
"... We present a generic aproach to the static analysis of concurrent programs with procedures. We model programs as communicating pushdown systems. It is known that typical dataow problems for this model are undecidable, because the emptiness problem for the intersection of contextfree languages, w ..."
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Cited by 77 (16 self)
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We present a generic aproach to the static analysis of concurrent programs with procedures. We model programs as communicating pushdown systems. It is known that typical dataow problems for this model are undecidable, because the emptiness problem for the intersection of contextfree languages, which is undecidable, can be reduced to them. In this paper we propose an algebraic framework for de ning abstractions (upper approximations) of contextfree languages. We consider two classes of abstractions: nitechain abstractions, which are abstractions whose domains do not contain any in nite chains, and commutative abstractions corresponding to classes of languages that contain a word if and only if they contain all its permutations. We show how to compute such approximations by combining automata theoretic techniques with algorithms for solving systems of polynomial inequations in Kleene algebras.