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The Impact of Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks
"... Sensor networks are distributed eventbased systems that differ from traditional communication networks in several ways: sensor networks have severe energy constraints, redundant lowrate data, and manytoone flows. Datacentric mechanisms that perform innetwork aggregation of data are needed in th ..."
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Cited by 265 (14 self)
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Sensor networks are distributed eventbased systems that differ from traditional communication networks in several ways: sensor networks have severe energy constraints, redundant lowrate data, and manytoone flows. Datacentric mechanisms that perform innetwork aggregation of data are needed in this setting for energyefficient information flow. In this paper we model datacentric routing and compare its performance with traditional endtoend routing schemes. We examine the impact of sourcedestination placement and communication network density on the energy costs and delay associated with data aggregation. We show that datacentric routing offers significant performance gains across a wide range of operational scenarios. We also examine the complexity of optimal data aggregation, showing that although it is an NPhard problem in general, there exist useful polynomialtime special cases. 1
Impact of network density on Data Aggregation in wireless sensor networks
, 2001
"... Innetwork data aggregation is essential for wireless sensor networks where resources (e.g., bandwidth, energy) are limited. In a previously proposed data dissemination scheme, data is opportunistically aggregated at the intermediate nodes on a lowlatency tree which may not necessarily be energy ef ..."
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Cited by 256 (4 self)
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Innetwork data aggregation is essential for wireless sensor networks where resources (e.g., bandwidth, energy) are limited. In a previously proposed data dissemination scheme, data is opportunistically aggregated at the intermediate nodes on a lowlatency tree which may not necessarily be energy efficient. A more energyefficient tree is a greedy tree which can be incrementally constructed by connecting each source to the closest point of the existing tree. In this paper, we propose a greedy approach for constructing a greedy aggregation tree to improve path sharing. We evaluated the performance of this greedy approach by comparing it to the prior opportunistic approach. Our preliminary result suggests that although the greedy aggregation and the opportunistic aggregation are roughly equivalent at lowdensity networks, the greedy aggregation can achieve signficant energy savings at higher densities. In one experiment we found that the greedy aggregation can achieve up to 45 % energy savings over the opportunistic aggregation without an adverse impact on latency or robustness.
When trees collide: An approximation algorithm for the generalized Steiner problem on networks
, 1994
"... We give the first approximation algorithm for the generalized network Steiner problem, a problem in network design. An instance consists of a network with linkcosts and, for each pair fi; jg of nodes, an edgeconnectivity requirement r ij . The goal is to find a minimumcost network using the a ..."
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Cited by 219 (32 self)
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We give the first approximation algorithm for the generalized network Steiner problem, a problem in network design. An instance consists of a network with linkcosts and, for each pair fi; jg of nodes, an edgeconnectivity requirement r ij . The goal is to find a minimumcost network using the available links and satisfying the requirements. Our algorithm outputs a solution whose cost is within 2dlog 2 (r + 1)e of optimal, where r is the highest requirement value. In the course of proving the performance guarantee, we prove a combinatorial minmax approximate equality relating minimumcost networks to maximum packings of certain kinds of cuts. As a consequence of the proof of this theorem, we obtain an approximation algorithm for optimally packing these cuts; we show that this algorithm has application to estimating the reliability of a probabilistic network.
Improved Steiner Tree Approximation in Graphs
, 2000
"... The Steiner tree problem in weighted graphs seeks a minimum weight connected subgraph containing a given subset of the vertices (terminals). We present a new polynomialtime heuristic with an approximation ratio approaching 1 + 2 1:55, which improves upon the previously bestknown approximation ..."
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Cited by 197 (8 self)
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The Steiner tree problem in weighted graphs seeks a minimum weight connected subgraph containing a given subset of the vertices (terminals). We present a new polynomialtime heuristic with an approximation ratio approaching 1 + 2 1:55, which improves upon the previously bestknown approximation algorithm of [10] with performance ratio 1:59.
Multicast Routing for Multimedia Communication
 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING
, 1993
"... We present heuristics for multicast tree construction for communication that depends on: i) bounded endtoend delay along the paths from source to each destination, and ii) minimum cost of the multicast tree, where edge cost and edge delay can be independent metrics. This problem of computing such ..."
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Cited by 189 (9 self)
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We present heuristics for multicast tree construction for communication that depends on: i) bounded endtoend delay along the paths from source to each destination, and ii) minimum cost of the multicast tree, where edge cost and edge delay can be independent metrics. This problem of computing such a constrained multicast tree is NPcomplete. We show that the heuristics demonstrate good average case behavior in terms of cost, as determined through simulations on a large number of graphs.
Approximation Algorithms for Directed Steiner Problems
 Journal of Algorithms
, 1998
"... We give the first nontrivial approximation algorithms for the Steiner tree problem and the generalized Steiner network problem on general directed graphs. These problems have several applications in network design and multicast routing. For both problems, the best ratios known before our work we ..."
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Cited by 143 (8 self)
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We give the first nontrivial approximation algorithms for the Steiner tree problem and the generalized Steiner network problem on general directed graphs. These problems have several applications in network design and multicast routing. For both problems, the best ratios known before our work were the trivial O(k)approximations. For the directed Steiner tree problem, we design a family of algorithms that achieves an approximation ratio of i(i \Gamma 1)k 1=i in time O(n i k 2i ) for any fixed i ? 1, where k is the number of terminals. Thus, an O(k ffl ) approximation ratio can be achieved in polynomial time for any fixed ffl ? 0. Setting i = log k, we obtain an O(log 2 k) approximation ratio in quasipolynomial time. For the directed generalized Steiner network problem, we give an algorithm that achieves an approximation ratio of O(k 2=3 log 1=3 k), where k is the number of pairs of vertices that are to be connected. Related problems including the group Steiner...
Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures For The Steiner Problem In Graphs
 QUADRATIC ASSIGNMENT AND RELATED PROBLEMS, VOLUME 16 OF DIMACS SERIES ON DISCRETE MATHEMATICS AND THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1999
"... We describe four versions of a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) for finding approximate solutions of general instances of the Steiner Problem in Graphs. Di#erent construction and local search algorithms are presented. Preliminary computational results with one of the versions ..."
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Cited by 105 (29 self)
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We describe four versions of a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) for finding approximate solutions of general instances of the Steiner Problem in Graphs. Di#erent construction and local search algorithms are presented. Preliminary computational results with one of the versions on a variety of test problems are reported. On the majority of instances from the ORLibrary, a set of standard test problems, the GRASP produced optimal solutions. On those that optimal solutions were not found, the GRASP found good quality approximate solutions.
A nearly bestpossible approximation algorithm for nodeweighted Steiner trees
, 1993
"... We give the first approximation algorithm for the nodeweighted Steiner tree problem. Its performance guarantee is within a constant factor of the best possible unless ~ P ' NP . Our algorithm generalizes to handle other network design problems. ..."
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Cited by 104 (8 self)
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We give the first approximation algorithm for the nodeweighted Steiner tree problem. Its performance guarantee is within a constant factor of the best possible unless ~ P ' NP . Our algorithm generalizes to handle other network design problems.
Modelling DataCentric Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
"... Sensor networks differ from traditional networks in several ways: sensor networks have severe energy constraints, redundant lowrate data, and manytoone flows. The endtoend routing schemes that have been proposed in the literature for mobile adhoc networks are not appropriate under these settin ..."
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Cited by 86 (2 self)
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Sensor networks differ from traditional networks in several ways: sensor networks have severe energy constraints, redundant lowrate data, and manytoone flows. The endtoend routing schemes that have been proposed in the literature for mobile adhoc networks are not appropriate under these settings. Datacentric technologies are needed that perform innetwork aggregation of data to yield energyefficient dissemination. In this paper we model datacentric routing and compare its performance with traditional endtoend routing schemes. We examine the impact of sourcedestination placement and communication network density on the energy costs, delay, and robustness of data aggregation. We show that datacentric routing offers significant performance gains across a wide range of operational scenarios.
Evaluation of multicast routing algorithms for realtime communication on highspeed networks
 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
, 1997
"... Multicast (MC) routing algorithms capable of satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of realtime applications will be essential for future highspeed networks. We compare the performance of all of the important MC routing algorithms when applied to networks with asymmetric link loads. ..."
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Cited by 78 (4 self)
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Multicast (MC) routing algorithms capable of satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of realtime applications will be essential for future highspeed networks. We compare the performance of all of the important MC routing algorithms when applied to networks with asymmetric link loads. Each algorithm is judged based on the quality of the MC trees it generates and its efficiency in managing the network resources. Simulation results over random networks show that unconstrained algorithms are not capable of fulfilling the QoS requirements of realtime applications in widearea networks. Simulations also reveal that one of the unconstrained algorithms, reverse path multicasting (RPM), is quite inefficient when applied to asymmetric networks. We study how combining routing with resource reservation and admission control improves RPM’s efficiency in managing the network resources. The performance of one semiconstrained heuristic, MSC, three constrained Steiner tree (CST) heuristics, KPP, CAO, and BSMA, and one constrained shortest path tree (CSPT) heuristic, CDKS are also studied. Simulations show that the semiconstrained and constrained heuristics are capable of successfully constructing MC trees which satisfy the QoS requirements of realtime traffic. However, the cost performance of the heuristics varies. BSMA’s MC trees are lower in cost than all other constrained heuristics. Finally, we compare the execution times of all algorithms, unconstrained, semiconstrained, and constrained.