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43
Geometric AdHoc Routing: Of Theory and Practice
, 2003
"... All too often a seemingly insurmountable divide between theory and practice can be witnessed. In this paper we try to contribute to narrowing this gap in the field of adhoc routing. In particular we consider two aspects: We propose a new geometric routing algorithm which is outstandingly e#cient on ..."
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Cited by 236 (11 self)
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All too often a seemingly insurmountable divide between theory and practice can be witnessed. In this paper we try to contribute to narrowing this gap in the field of adhoc routing. In particular we consider two aspects: We propose a new geometric routing algorithm which is outstandingly e#cient on practical averagecase networks, however is also in theory asymptotically worstcase optimal. On the other hand we are able to drop the formerly necessary assumption that the distance between network nodes may not fall below a constant value, an assumption that cannot be maintained for practical networks. Abandoning this assumption we identify from a theoretical point of view two fundamentamentally di#erent classes of cost metrics for routing in adhoc networks.
An extended localized algorithm for connected dominating set formation in ad hoc wireless networks
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
, 2004
"... Efficient routing among a set of mobile hosts is one of the most important functions in ad hoc wireless networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the search space for a route is reduced to the hosts in the set. A set is dominating if all the hosts in the sy ..."
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Cited by 103 (14 self)
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Efficient routing among a set of mobile hosts is one of the most important functions in ad hoc wireless networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the search space for a route is reduced to the hosts in the set. A set is dominating if all the hosts in the system are either in the set or neighbors of hosts in the set. The efficiency of dominatingsetbased routing mainly depends on the overhead introduced in the formation of the dominating set and the size of the dominating set. In this paper, we first review a localized formation of a connected dominating set called marking process and dominatingsetbased routing. Then, we propose a dominant pruning rule to reduce the size of the dominating set. This dominant pruning rule (called Rule k) is a generalization of two existing rules (called Rule 1 and Rule 2, respectively). We prove that the vertex set derived by applying Rule k is still a connected dominating set. Rule k is more effective in reducing the dominating set derived from the marking process than the combination of Rules 1 and 2 and, surprisingly, in a restricted implementation with local neighborhood information, Rule k has the same communication complexity and less computation complexity. Simulation results confirm that Rule k outperforms Rules 1 and 2, especially in networks with relatively high vertex degree and high percentage of unidirectional links. We also prove that an upper bound exists on the average size of the dominating set derived from Rule k in its restricted implementation.
A generic distributed broadcast scheme in ad hoc wireless networks
 IEEE Transactions on Computers
, 2003
"... We propose a generic framework for distributed broadcasting in ad hoc wireless networks. The approach is based on selecting a small subset of nodes (also called nodes) to form a forward node set to carry out a broadcast process. The status of each node, forward or nonforward, is determined either b ..."
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Cited by 51 (11 self)
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We propose a generic framework for distributed broadcasting in ad hoc wireless networks. The approach is based on selecting a small subset of nodes (also called nodes) to form a forward node set to carry out a broadcast process. The status of each node, forward or nonforward, is determined either by the node itself or by other nodes. Node status can be determined at different snapshots of network state along time (called views) without causing problems in broadcast coverage. Therefore, the forward node set can be constructed and maintained through either a proactive process (i.e., “uptodate”) before the broadcast process or a reactive process (i.e., “onthefly”) during the broadcast process. A sufficient condition, called coverage condition, is given for a node to take the nonforward status. Such a condition can be easily checked locally around the node. Several existing broadcast algorithms can be viewed as special cases of the generic framework with khop neighborhood information. A comprehensive comparison among existing algorithms is conducted. Simulation results show that new algorithms, which are more efficient than existing ones, can be derived from the generic framework.
Distributed Dominant Pruning in Ad Hoc Networks
, 2003
"... Efficient routing among mobile hosts is an important function in ad hoc networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the search space for a route is reduced to the hosts in the set. A set is dominating if all the hosts are either in the set or neighbors of ho ..."
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Cited by 43 (0 self)
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Efficient routing among mobile hosts is an important function in ad hoc networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the search space for a route is reduced to the hosts in the set. A set is dominating if all the hosts are either in the set or neighbors of hosts in the set. The efficiency of dominatingsetbased routing mainly depends on the overhead introduced in the formation of the dominating set and the size of the dominating set. In this paper, we first review a distributed formation of a connected dominating set called marking process and dominatingsetbased routing. Then we propose a dominant pruning rule to reduce the size of the dominating set. This dominant pruning rule (called Rule k) is a generalization of two existing rules (called Rules 1 and 2). We prove that the vertex set derived by applying Rule k is still a connected dominating set. When implemented with local neighborhood information, Rule k is more effective in reducing the dominating set derived from the marking process than the combination of Rules 1 and 2, and has the same communication complexity and less computation complexity. Simulation results confirm that Rule k outperforms Rules 1 and 2, especially in relatively dense networks with unidirectional links.
Poweraware broadcasting and activity scheduling in ad hoc wireless networks using connected dominating sets
 WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS AND MOBILE COMPUTING
, 2002
"... In ad hoc mobile wireless networks, due to host mobility, broadcasting is expected to be more frequently used to find a route to a particular host, to page a host, and to alarm all hosts. A straightforward broadcasting by flooding is usually very costly and results in substantial redundancy and more ..."
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Cited by 35 (8 self)
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In ad hoc mobile wireless networks, due to host mobility, broadcasting is expected to be more frequently used to find a route to a particular host, to page a host, and to alarm all hosts. A straightforward broadcasting by flooding is usually very costly and results in substantial redundancy and more energy consumption. Power consumption is an important issue since most mobile hosts operate on battery. Broadcasting based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where only nodes in the dominating set need to relay the broadcast packet. A set is dominating if all the nodes in the system are either in the set or neighbors of nodes in the set. Wu and Li proposed a simple and efficient distributed algorithm for calculating connected dominating set in ad hoc wireless networks, where connections of nodes are determined by their geographical distances. In general, nodes in the connected dominating set consume more energy to handle various bypass traffics than nodes outside the set. To prolong the life span of each node and, hence, the network by balancing the energy consumption in the system, nodes should be alternated in being chosen to form a connected dominating set. Activity scheduling deals with the way to rotate the role of each node among a set of given operation modes (dominating nodes versus dominated nodes in this paper). In this paper, we propose to apply poweraware connected dominating set notions to broadcasting and activity scheduling. The effectiveness of the proposed method in prolonging the life span of the network is confirmed through simulation.
A Distributed Coverage and ConnectivityCentric Technique for Selecting Active Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks
 IEEE TRANS. COMPUTERS
, 2005
"... Due to their low cost and small form factors, a large number of sensor nodes can be deployed in redundant fashion in dense sensor networks. The availability of redundant nodes increases network lifetime as well as network fault tolerance. It is, however, undesirable to keep all the sensor nodes act ..."
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Cited by 24 (2 self)
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Due to their low cost and small form factors, a large number of sensor nodes can be deployed in redundant fashion in dense sensor networks. The availability of redundant nodes increases network lifetime as well as network fault tolerance. It is, however, undesirable to keep all the sensor nodes active at all times for sensing and communication. An excessive number of active nodes leads to higher energy consumption and it places more demand on the limited network bandwidth. We present an efficient technique for the selection of active sensor nodes in dense sensor networks. The active node selection procedure is aimed at providing the highest possible coverage of the sensor field, i.e., the surveillance area. It also assures network connectivity for routing and information dissemination. We first show that the coveragecentric active nodes selection problem is NPcomplete. We then present a distributed approach based on the concept of a connected dominating set (CDS). We prove that the set of active nodes selected by our approach provides full coverage and connectivity. We also describe an optimal coveragecentric centralized approach based on integer linear programming. We present simulation results obtained using an ns2 implementation of the proposed technique.
A distributed approach to node clustering in decentralized peertopeer networks
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
, 2005
"... Connectivitybased node clustering has wideranging applications in decentralized peertopeer (P2P) networks such as P2P file sharing systems, mobile adhoc networks, P2P sensor networks, and so forth. This paper describes a Connectivitybased Distributed Node Clustering scheme (CDC). This scheme ..."
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Cited by 18 (1 self)
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Connectivitybased node clustering has wideranging applications in decentralized peertopeer (P2P) networks such as P2P file sharing systems, mobile adhoc networks, P2P sensor networks, and so forth. This paper describes a Connectivitybased Distributed Node Clustering scheme (CDC). This scheme presents a scalable and efficient solution for discovering connectivitybased clusters in peer networks. In contrast to centralized graph clustering algorithms, the CDC scheme is completely decentralized and it only assumes the knowledge of neighbor nodes instead of requiring a global knowledge of the network (graph) to be available. An important feature of the CDC scheme is its ability to cluster the entire network automatically or to discover clusters around a given set of nodes. To cope with the typical dynamics of P2P networks, we provide mechanisms to allow new nodes to be incorporated into appropriate existing clusters and to gracefully handle the departure of nodes in the clusters. These mechanisms enable the CDC scheme to be extensible and adaptable in the sense that the clustering structure of the network adjusts automatically as nodes join or leave the system. We provide detailed experimental evaluations of the CDC scheme, addressing its effectiveness in discovering good quality clusters and handling the node dynamics. We further study the types of topologies that can benefit best from the connectivitybased distributed clustering algorithms like CDC. Our experiments show that utilizing messagebased connectivity structure can considerably reduce the messaging cost and provide better utilization of resources, which in turn improves the quality of service of the applications executing over decentralized peertopeer networks.
Energy Efficient Broadcast Routing in Static Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
 IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput
, 2004
"... Abstract—In this paper, we discuss energy efficient broadcast in ad hoc wireless networks. The problem of our concern is: Given an ad hoc wireless network, find a broadcast tree such that the energy cost of the broadcast tree is minimized. Each node in the network is assumed to have a fixed level of ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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Abstract—In this paper, we discuss energy efficient broadcast in ad hoc wireless networks. The problem of our concern is: Given an ad hoc wireless network, find a broadcast tree such that the energy cost of the broadcast tree is minimized. Each node in the network is assumed to have a fixed level of transmission power. We first prove that the problem is NPhard and propose three heuristic algorithms, namely, shortest path tree heuristic, greedy heuristic, and node weighted Steiner treebased heuristic, which are centralized algorithms. The approximation ratio of the node weighted Steiner treebased heuristic is proven to be ð1 þ 2lnðn 1ÞÞ. Extensive simulations have been conducted and the results have demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed algorithms. Index Terms—Ad hoc wireless networks, energy efficient, broadcast routing, heuristic algorithm. 1
Connected dominating sets in wireless networks with different transmission ranges
 IEEE transactions on mobile computing
, 2007
"... Abstract—Since there is no fixed infrastructure or centralized management in wireless ad hoc networks, a Connected Dominating Set (CDS) has been proposed to serve as a virtual backbone. The CDS of a graph representing a network has a significant impact on the efficient design of routing protocols in ..."
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Cited by 14 (3 self)
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Abstract—Since there is no fixed infrastructure or centralized management in wireless ad hoc networks, a Connected Dominating Set (CDS) has been proposed to serve as a virtual backbone. The CDS of a graph representing a network has a significant impact on the efficient design of routing protocols in wireless networks. This problem has been studied extensively in Unit Disk Graphs (UDG), in which all nodes have the same transmission ranges. However, in practice, the transmission ranges of all nodes are not necessarily equal. In this paper, we model a network as a disk graph and introduce the CDS problem in disk graphs. We present two efficient approximation algorithms to obtain a minimum CDS. The performance ratio of these algorithms is constant if the ratio of the maximum transmission range over the minimum transmission range in the network is bounded. These algorithms can be implemented as distributed algorithms. Furthermore, we show a size relationship between a maximal independent set and a CDS as well as a bound of the maximum number of independent neighbors of a node in disk graphs. The theoretical analysis and simulation results are also presented to verify our approaches. Index Terms—Connected dominating set, independent set, disk graph, wireless network, virtual backbone. 1
Distributed Mobility Management for Target Tracking in Mobile Sensor Networks
"... Abstract—Mobility management is a major challenge in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) due in part to the dynamically changing network topologies. For mobile sensor networks that are deployed for surveillance applications, it is important to use a mobility management scheme that can empower nodes to m ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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Abstract—Mobility management is a major challenge in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) due in part to the dynamically changing network topologies. For mobile sensor networks that are deployed for surveillance applications, it is important to use a mobility management scheme that can empower nodes to make better decisions regarding their positions such that strategic tasks such as target tracking can benefit from node movement. In this paper, we describe a distributed mobility management scheme for mobile sensor networks. The proposed scheme considers node movement decisions as part of a distributed optimization problem which integrates mobilityenhanced improvement in the quality of target tracking data with the associated negative consequences of increased energy consumption due to locomotion, potential loss of network connectivity, and loss of sensing coverage. Index Terms—Wireless mobile sensor networks, mobility management, target tracking, Bayesian, distributed system. 1