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Geometric AdHoc Routing: Of Theory and Practice
, 2003
"... All too often a seemingly insurmountable divide between theory and practice can be witnessed. In this paper we try to contribute to narrowing this gap in the field of adhoc routing. In particular we consider two aspects: We propose a new geometric routing algorithm which is outstandingly e#cient on ..."
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Cited by 303 (13 self)
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All too often a seemingly insurmountable divide between theory and practice can be witnessed. In this paper we try to contribute to narrowing this gap in the field of adhoc routing. In particular we consider two aspects: We propose a new geometric routing algorithm which is outstandingly e#cient on practical averagecase networks, however is also in theory asymptotically worstcase optimal. On the other hand we are able to drop the formerly necessary assumption that the distance between network nodes may not fall below a constant value, an assumption that cannot be maintained for practical networks. Abandoning this assumption we identify from a theoretical point of view two fundamentamentally di#erent classes of cost metrics for routing in adhoc networks.
Loopfree hybrid singlepath/flooding routing algorithms with guaranteed delivery for wireless networks
 IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
"... AbstractÐIn a localized routing algorithm, each node makes forwarding decisions solely based on the position of itself, its neighbors, and its destination. In distance, progress, and directionbased approaches (reported in the literature), when node A wants to send or forward message m to destinatio ..."
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Cited by 146 (18 self)
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AbstractÐIn a localized routing algorithm, each node makes forwarding decisions solely based on the position of itself, its neighbors, and its destination. In distance, progress, and directionbased approaches (reported in the literature), when node A wants to send or forward message m to destination node D, it forwards m to its neighbor C which is closest to D (has best progress toward D, whose direction is closest to the direction of D, respectively) among all neighbors of A. The same procedure is repeated until D, if possible, is eventually reached. The algorithms are referred to as GEDIR, MFR, and DIR when a common failure criterion is introduced: The algorithm stops if the best choice for the current node is the node from which the message came. We propose 2hop GEDIR, DIR, and MFR methods in which node A selects the best candidate node C among its 1hop and 2hop neighbors according to the corresponding criterion and forwards m to its best 1hop neighbor among joint neighbors of A and C. We then propose flooding GEDIR and MFR and hybrid singlepath/flooding GEDIR and MFR methods which are the first localized algorithms (other than full flooding) to guarantee the message delivery (in a collisionfree environment). We show that the directional routing methods are not loopfree, while the GEDIR and MFRbased methods are inherently loop free. The simulation experiments, with static random graphs, show that GEDIR and MFR have similar success rates, which is low for low degree graphs and high for high degree ones. When successful, their hop counts are near the performance of the shortest path algorithm. Hybrid singlepath/flooding GEDIR and MFR methods have low communication overheads. The results are also confirmed by experiments with moving nodes and MAC layer. Index TermsÐRouting, wireless networks, distributed algorithms, shortest path, broadcasting. æ 1
AdHoc Networks Beyond Unit Disk Graphs
, 2003
"... In this paper we study a model for adhoc networks close enough to reality as to represent existing networks, being at the same time concise enough to promote strong theoretical results. The Quasi Unit Disk Graph model contains all edges shorter than a parameter d between 0 and 1 and no edges longer ..."
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Cited by 130 (11 self)
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In this paper we study a model for adhoc networks close enough to reality as to represent existing networks, being at the same time concise enough to promote strong theoretical results. The Quasi Unit Disk Graph model contains all edges shorter than a parameter d between 0 and 1 and no edges longer than 1. We show that  in comparison to the cost known on Unit Disk Graphs  the complexity results in this model contain the additional factor 1/d&sup2;. We prove that in Quasi Unit Disk Graphs flooding is an asymptotically messageoptimal routing technique, provide a geometric routing algorithm being more efficient above all in dense networks, and show that classic geometric routing is possible with the same performance guarantees as for Unit Disk Graphs if d 1/ # 2.
Position Based Routing Algorithms For Ad Hoc Networks: A Taxonomy
 Ad Hoc Wireless Networking
, 2001
"... Recent availability of small inexpensive low power GPS receivers and techniques for finding relative coordinates based on signal strengths, and the need for the design of power efficient and scalable networks, provided justification for applying position based routing methods in ad hoc networks. A n ..."
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Cited by 89 (4 self)
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Recent availability of small inexpensive low power GPS receivers and techniques for finding relative coordinates based on signal strengths, and the need for the design of power efficient and scalable networks, provided justification for applying position based routing methods in ad hoc networks. A number of such algorithms were developed in last few years, in addition to few basic methods proposed about fifteen years ago. This article surveys known routing methods, and provides their taxonomy in terms of a number of characteristics: loopfree behavior, distributed operation (localized, global or zonal), path strategy (single path, multipath or flooding based), metrics used (hop count, power or cost), memorization (memoryless or memorizing past traffic), guaranteed delivery, scalability, and robustness (strategies to handle the position deviation due to the dynamicity of the network). We also briefly discuss relevant issues such as physical requirements, experimental design, location updates, QoS, congestion, scheduling node activity, topology construction, broadcasting and network capacity.
Locating and bypassing holes in sensor networks
 Mob. Netw. Appl
"... Abstract. In real sensor network deployments, spatial distributions of sensors are usually far from being uniform. Such networks often contain regions without enough sensor nodes, which we call holes. In this paper, we show that holes are important topological features that need to be studied. In ro ..."
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Cited by 27 (2 self)
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Abstract. In real sensor network deployments, spatial distributions of sensors are usually far from being uniform. Such networks often contain regions without enough sensor nodes, which we call holes. In this paper, we show that holes are important topological features that need to be studied. In routing, holes are communication voids that cause greedy forwarding to fail. Holes can also be defined to denote regions of interest, such as the “hot spots ” created by traffic congestion or sensor power shortage. In this paper, we define holes to be the regions enclosed by a polygonal cycle which contains all the nodes where local minima can appear. We also propose simple and distributed algorithms, the TENT rule and BOUNDHOLE, to identify and build routes around holes. We show that the boundaries of holes marked using BOUNDHOLE can be used in many applications such as geographic routing, path migration, information storage mechanisms and identification of regions of interest.
An algorithmic approach to geographic routing in ad hoc and sensor networks
 IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw
"... Abstract—The one type of routing in ad hoc and sensor networks that currently appears to be most amenable to algorithmic analysis is geographic routing. This paper contains an introduction to the problem field of geographic routing, presents a specific routing algorithm based on a synthesis of the g ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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Abstract—The one type of routing in ad hoc and sensor networks that currently appears to be most amenable to algorithmic analysis is geographic routing. This paper contains an introduction to the problem field of geographic routing, presents a specific routing algorithm based on a synthesis of the greedy forwarding and face routing approaches, and provides an algorithmic analysis of the presented algorithm from both a worstcase and an averagecase perspective. Index Terms—Algorithmic analysis, routing, stretch, wireless networks.
LocationBased Localized Alternate, Disjoint and MultiPath Routing Algorithms for Wireless Networks
, 2003
"... Recently, several fully distributed (localized) locationbased routing protocols for a mobile ad hoc network were reported in literature. They are variations of directional (DIR), geographic distance (GEDIR) or progressbased (MFR) routing methods. In DIR methods each node A (the source or intermedi ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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Recently, several fully distributed (localized) locationbased routing protocols for a mobile ad hoc network were reported in literature. They are variations of directional (DIR), geographic distance (GEDIR) or progressbased (MFR) routing methods. In DIR methods each node A (the source or intermediate node) transmits a message m to several neighbors whose direction is closest to the direction of D. In MFR (most forward progress within radius), and GEDIR (GEographic DIstance Routing) methods, when node A wants to send m to node D, it forwards m neighbor C whose protection or distance (respectively) is closest to D among all neighbors of A. The same procedure is repeated until D, if possible, is eventually reached. In this paper, we introduce three variants of multiple path cGEDIR, cDIR and cMFR methods in which mis initially sent to c best neighbors according to corresqj7fixE criterion, andafterwards on intermediatenodes itis forwarded to only the bes neighbor. In the original cpath method, only thefirs received copy at intermediatenodes is forwarded to the bes neighbor. In the alternate cpath method, the ith received copyis forwarded to ithbes neighbor, according to these jEUEx criterion. In the disjoint cpath method, each intermediate node, upon receiving themesGfiU/ will forward it toits bes neighbor among thos who never received themesxflE (thus in effect, the methods attempts c disoint pathsT The sjExQExj7 experiments with random graphs sap that disjoint multiple path methods provide high sghjGE rates and sdjG hopcounts forsrjE values of c: They als have reduced flooding rates compared to the bes exis/qT multiplepathmethods and/or methods that require memorizing pas traffic,saf as recently proposy LAR2, fGEDIR, and DFSbasG routing, and can snjE as abasq for scalable QoS routing in wireless networks.
An Extended Internet Architecture for LowPower Wireless Networks  Design and Implementation
, 2008
"... personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires pri ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific
Geometric AdHoc Routing for Unit Disk Graphs and General Cost Models
, 2002
"... What is the influence of the chosen cost metric on the performance of a mobile adhoc routing algorithm? In this paper we define the notion of a general cost metric and observe that all cost metrics fall into two classes, linearly bounded and superlinear. Distinguished by a natural argument, the two ..."
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Cited by 7 (4 self)
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What is the influence of the chosen cost metric on the performance of a mobile adhoc routing algorithm? In this paper we define the notion of a general cost metric and observe that all cost metrics fall into two classes, linearly bounded and superlinear. Distinguished by a natural argument, the two classes yet show a dramatic difference: On a network with linearly bounded cost metric a geometric routing algorithm will find a route whose cost at most quadratic in the cost of the optimal route, which at the same time is asymptotically optimal. On the other hand there is no such bound on a graph with superlinear cost functions for any geometric routing algorithm. We introduce, however, the class of bounded degree unit disk graphs, on which all cost metrics are equivalent. We nally propose an asymptotically optimal distributed geometric routing algorithm based on node clustering and network backbone construction.
Eventdriven geographic routing for wireless image sensor networks
 in Proceedings of the Proceedings of Cognitive Systems and Interactive Sensors (COGIS ’06
, 2006
"... Abstract — We propose a distributed routing scheme with adjustable priority support for eventdriven wireless sensor networks. The network nodes are assumed to generate periodic data packets that are reported to the destination via multihop routing. Nodes may also infrequently detect an event from w ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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Abstract — We propose a distributed routing scheme with adjustable priority support for eventdriven wireless sensor networks. The network nodes are assumed to generate periodic data packets that are reported to the destination via multihop routing. Nodes may also infrequently detect an event from which a large number of packets are produced and need to be reported. These highbandwidth event reports may cause packet queues to develop at the routing nodes along paths to the destination. The proposed routing scheme employs a cost function based on the location information as well as the current queue lengths and remaining energies at the neighboring nodes as a basis for next hop selection. Our scheme also implements a set of relative priority levels for the eventbased and periodic data packets. Simulation results are presented and indicate improved network lifetime, lower endtoend average and maximum delays, and significantly reduced buffer size requirements for the network nodes. I.