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33
Axioms of Causal Relevance
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1996
"... This paper develops axioms and formal semantics for statements of the form "X is causally irrelevant to Y in context Z," which we interpret to mean "Changing X will not affect Y if we hold Z constant." The axiomization of causal irrelevance is contrasted with the axiomization of informational irr ..."
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Cited by 54 (15 self)
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This paper develops axioms and formal semantics for statements of the form "X is causally irrelevant to Y in context Z," which we interpret to mean "Changing X will not affect Y if we hold Z constant." The axiomization of causal irrelevance is contrasted with the axiomization of informational irrelevance, as in "Learning X will not alter our belief in Y , once we know Z." Two versions of causal irrelevance are analyzed, probabilistic and deterministic. We show that, unless stability is assumed, the probabilistic definition yields a very loose structure, that is governed by just two trivial axioms. Under the stability assumption, probabilistic causal irrelevance is isomorphic to path interception in cyclic graphs. Under the deterministic definition, causal irrelevance complies with all of the axioms of path interception in cyclic graphs, with the exception of transitivity. We compare our formalism to that of [Lewis, 1973], and offer a graphical method of proving theorems abou...
An Axiomatic Characterization of Causal Counterfactuals
, 1998
"... This paper studies the causal interpretation of counterfactual sentences using a modifiable structural equation model. It is shown that two properties of counterfactuals, namely, composition and effectiveness, are sound and complete relative to this interpretation, when recursive (i.e., feedback ..."
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Cited by 47 (19 self)
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This paper studies the causal interpretation of counterfactual sentences using a modifiable structural equation model. It is shown that two properties of counterfactuals, namely, composition and effectiveness, are sound and complete relative to this interpretation, when recursive (i.e., feedbackless) models are considered. Composition and effectiveness also hold in Lewis's closestworld semantics, which implies that for recursive models the causal interpretation imposes no restrictions beyond those embodied in Lewis's framework. A third property, called reversibility, holds in nonrecursive causal models but not in Lewis's closestworld semantics, which implies that Lewis's axioms do not capture some properties of systems with feedback. Causal inferences based on counterfactual analysis are exemplified and compared to those based on graphical models.
Reasoning With Cause And Effect
, 1999
"... This paper summarizes basic concepts and principles that I have found to be useful in dealing with causal reasoning. The paper is written as a companion to a lecture under the same title, to be presented at IJCAI99, and is intended to supplement the lecture with technical details and pointers to mo ..."
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Cited by 36 (0 self)
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This paper summarizes basic concepts and principles that I have found to be useful in dealing with causal reasoning. The paper is written as a companion to a lecture under the same title, to be presented at IJCAI99, and is intended to supplement the lecture with technical details and pointers to more elaborate discussions in the literature. The ruling conception will be to treat causation as a computational schema devised to identify the invariant relationships in the environment, so as to facilitate reliable prediction of the effect of actions. This conception, as well as several of its satellite principles and tools, has been guiding paradigm for several research communities in AI, most notably those connected with causal discovery, troubleshooting, planning under uncertainty and modeling the behavior of physical systems. My hopes are to encourage a broader and more effective usage of causal modeling by explicating these common principles in simple and familiar mathematical form. Af...
The Dynamics of Vagueness
, 2002
"... this paper is about the dynamic behavior of gradable adjectives in general (tall, red, 1 ..."
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Cited by 29 (2 self)
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this paper is about the dynamic behavior of gradable adjectives in general (tall, red, 1
Possibility theory and statistical reasoning
 Computational Statistics & Data Analysis Vol
, 2006
"... Numerical possibility distributions can encode special convex families of probability measures. The connection between possibility theory and probability theory is potentially fruitful in the scope of statistical reasoning when uncertainty due to variability of observations should be distinguished f ..."
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Cited by 26 (2 self)
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Numerical possibility distributions can encode special convex families of probability measures. The connection between possibility theory and probability theory is potentially fruitful in the scope of statistical reasoning when uncertainty due to variability of observations should be distinguished from uncertainty due to incomplete information. This paper proposes an overview of numerical possibility theory. Its aim is to show that some notions in statistics are naturally interpreted in the language of this theory. First, probabilistic inequalites (like Chebychev’s) offer a natural setting for devising possibility distributions from poor probabilistic information. Moreover, likelihood functions obey the laws of possibility theory when no prior probability is available. Possibility distributions also generalize the notion of confidence or prediction intervals, shedding some light on the role of the mode of asymmetric probability densities in the derivation of maximally informative interval substitutes of probabilistic information. Finally, the simulation of fuzzy sets comes down to selecting a probabilistic representation of a possibility distribution, which coincides with the Shapley value of the corresponding consonant capacity. This selection process is in agreement with Laplace indifference principle and is closely connected with the mean interval of a fuzzy interval. It sheds light on the “defuzzification ” process in fuzzy set theory and provides a natural definition of a subjective possibility distribution that sticks to the Bayesian framework of exchangeable bets. Potential applications to risk assessment are pointed out. 1
Bare Plurals, Bare Conditionals, and Only
, 1997
"... The compositional semantics of sentences like Only mammals give live birth and The flag flies only if the Queen is home is a tough problem. Evidence is presented to show that only here is modifying an underlying proposition (its "prejacent"). After discussing the semantics of only, the question of t ..."
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Cited by 16 (2 self)
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The compositional semantics of sentences like Only mammals give live birth and The flag flies only if the Queen is home is a tough problem. Evidence is presented to show that only here is modifying an underlying proposition (its "prejacent"). After discussing the semantics of only, the question of the proper interpretation of the prejacent is explored. It would be nice if the prejacent could be analyzed as having existential quantificational force. But that is difficult to maintain, since the prejacent structures when encountered on their own are naturally read as having a lawlike flavor, which in many analyses is attributed to the semantics of implicit operators alleged to be present in them. In the end, an analysis is presented which attributes some very particular properties to these operators and thereby succeeds in providing the target sentences with intuitively adequate interpretations. These complex constructions can therefore be used as a probe into the nature of implicit quantification in natural language.
Expressing Independence in a Possibilistic Framework and its Application to Default Reasoning
 In Proc. ECAI'94
, 1994
"... . Possibility theory offers a general framework for dealing with default rules of the form "generally, if p, then q" which are modelled by constraints expressing that having p and q true is strictly more possible than having p and not q true. Then possibilistic logic offers an inference machinery fo ..."
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Cited by 12 (6 self)
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. Possibility theory offers a general framework for dealing with default rules of the form "generally, if p, then q" which are modelled by constraints expressing that having p and q true is strictly more possible than having p and not q true. Then possibilistic logic offers an inference machinery for default reasoning which obeys classical postulates for nonmonotonic reasoning including rational monotony. In this paper after presenting an overview of the possibilistic approach to default reasoning, we discuss how to express independence information of the type "in context p, the truth or the falsity of r has no influence on the truth of q". A brief discussion of the modelling of independence in possibility theory is provided. Taking into account independence assumptions leads to supplement the given set of defaults with more specific defaults; this allows to deal with independence information in a way homogeneous with defaults, and to solve blocking of property inheritance problems. 1 ...
Topical Referents for Individuals and Possibilities
 Proceedings from
, 2001
"... In a classic paper Partee (1973) noted detailed referential and anaphoric parallels between tenses and pronouns in English. Since then these parallels have been successfully analyzed in terms of domainneutral principles of discourse reference and anaphora — most fully developed in Kamp & Reyle (199 ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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In a classic paper Partee (1973) noted detailed referential and anaphoric parallels between tenses and pronouns in English. Since then these parallels have been successfully analyzed in terms of domainneutral principles of discourse reference and anaphora — most fully developed in Kamp & Reyle (1993) — which apply