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61
Prioritized sweeping: Reinforcement learning with less data and less time
 Machine Learning
, 1993
"... We present a new algorithm, Prioritized Sweeping, for e cient prediction and control of stochastic Markov systems. Incremental learning methods such asTemporal Di erencing and Qlearning have fast real time performance. Classical methods are slower, but more accurate, because they make full use of ..."
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Cited by 314 (5 self)
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We present a new algorithm, Prioritized Sweeping, for e cient prediction and control of stochastic Markov systems. Incremental learning methods such asTemporal Di erencing and Qlearning have fast real time performance. Classical methods are slower, but more accurate, because they make full use of the observations. Prioritized Sweeping aims for the best of both worlds. It uses all previous experiences both to prioritize important dynamic programming sweeps and to guide the exploration of statespace. We compare Prioritized Sweeping with other reinforcement learning schemes for a number of di erent stochastic optimal control problems. It successfully solves large statespace real time problems with which other methods have di culty. 1 1
The partigame algorithm for variable resolution reinforcement learning in multidimensional statespaces
 Machine Learning
, 1995
"... Abstract. Partigame is a new algorithm for learning feasible trajectories to goal regions in high dimensional continuous statespaces. In high dimensions it is essential that learning does not plan uniformly over a statespace. Partigame maintains a decisiontree partitioning of statespace and ap ..."
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Cited by 224 (8 self)
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Abstract. Partigame is a new algorithm for learning feasible trajectories to goal regions in high dimensional continuous statespaces. In high dimensions it is essential that learning does not plan uniformly over a statespace. Partigame maintains a decisiontree partitioning of statespace and applies techniques from gametheory and computational geometry to e ciently and adaptively concentrate high resolution only on critical areas. The currentversion of the algorithm is designed to nd feasible paths or trajectories to goal regions in high dimensional spaces. Future versions will be designed to nd a solution that optimizes a realvalued criterion. Many simulated problems have been tested, ranging from twodimensional to ninedimensional statespaces, including mazes, path planning, nonlinear dynamics, and planar snake robots in restricted spaces. In all cases, a good solution is found in less than ten trials and a few minutes.
Scans as Primitive Parallel Operations
 IEEE Transactions on Computers
, 1987
"... In most parallel randomaccess machine (PRAM) models, memory references are assumed to take unit time. In practice, and in theory, certain scan operations, also known as prefix computations, can executed in no more time than these parallel memory references. This paper outline an extensive study of ..."
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Cited by 157 (12 self)
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In most parallel randomaccess machine (PRAM) models, memory references are assumed to take unit time. In practice, and in theory, certain scan operations, also known as prefix computations, can executed in no more time than these parallel memory references. This paper outline an extensive study of the effect of including in the PRAM models, such scan operations as unittime primitives. The study concludes that the primitives improve the asymptotic running time of many algorithms by an O(lg n) factor, greatly simplify the description of many algorithms, and are significantly easier to implement than memory references. We therefore argue that the algorithm designer should feel free to use these operations as if they were as cheap as a memory reference. This paper describes five algorithms that clearly illustrate how the scan primitives can be used in algorithm design: a radixsort algorithm, a quicksort algorithm, a minimumspanning tree algorithm, a linedrawing algorithm and a mergi...
Efficient algorithms for geometric optimization
 ACM Comput. Surv
, 1998
"... We review the recent progress in the design of efficient algorithms for various problems in geometric optimization. We present several techniques used to attack these problems, such as parametric searching, geometric alternatives to parametric searching, pruneandsearch techniques for linear progra ..."
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Cited by 92 (12 self)
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We review the recent progress in the design of efficient algorithms for various problems in geometric optimization. We present several techniques used to attack these problems, such as parametric searching, geometric alternatives to parametric searching, pruneandsearch techniques for linear programming and related problems, and LPtype problems and their efficient solution. We then describe a variety of applications of these and other techniques to numerous problems in geometric optimization, including facility location, proximity problems, statistical estimators and metrology, placement and intersection of polygons and polyhedra, and ray shooting and other querytype problems.
`NBody' Problems in Statistical Learning
, 2001
"... We present efficient algorithms for allpointpairs problems, or 'Nbody 'like problems, which are ubiquitous in statistical learning. We focus on six examples, including nearestneighbor classification, kernel density estimation, outlier detection, and the twopoint correlation. ..."
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Cited by 90 (12 self)
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We present efficient algorithms for allpointpairs problems, or 'Nbody 'like problems, which are ubiquitous in statistical learning. We focus on six examples, including nearestneighbor classification, kernel density estimation, outlier detection, and the twopoint correlation.
CacheOblivious Algorithms
, 1999
"... This thesis presents "cacheoblivious" algorithms that use asymptotically optimal amounts of work, and move data asymptotically optimally among multiple levels of cache. An algorithm is cache oblivious if no program variables dependent on hardware configuration parameters, such as cache size and cac ..."
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Cited by 78 (1 self)
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This thesis presents "cacheoblivious" algorithms that use asymptotically optimal amounts of work, and move data asymptotically optimally among multiple levels of cache. An algorithm is cache oblivious if no program variables dependent on hardware configuration parameters, such as cache size and cacheline length need to be tuned to minimize the number of cache misses. We show that the ordinary algorithms for matrix transposition, matrix multiplication, sorting, and Jacobistyle multipass filtering are not cache optimal. We present algorithms for rectangular matrix transposition, FFT, sorting, and multipass filters, which are asymptotically optimal on computers with multiple levels of caches. For a cache with size Z and cacheline length L, where Z =# (L 2 ), the number of cache misses for an m × n matrix transpose is #(1 + mn=L). The number of cache misses for either an npoint FFT or the sorting of n numbers is #(1 + (n=L)(1 + log Z n)). The cache complexity of computing n ...
Vgram: Improving performance of approximate queries on string collections using variablelength grams
 In VLDB’07
"... Many applications need to solve the following problem of approximate string matching: from a collection of strings, how to find those similar to a given string, or the strings in another (possibly the same) collection of strings? Many algorithms are developed using fixedlength grams, which are subs ..."
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Cited by 42 (8 self)
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Many applications need to solve the following problem of approximate string matching: from a collection of strings, how to find those similar to a given string, or the strings in another (possibly the same) collection of strings? Many algorithms are developed using fixedlength grams, which are substrings of a string used as signatures to identify similar strings. In this paper we develop a novel technique, called VGRAM, to improve the performance of these algorithms. Its main idea is to judiciously choose highquality grams of variable lengths from a collection of strings to support queries on the collection. We give a full specification of this technique, including how to select highquality grams from the collection, how to generate variablelength grams for a string based on the preselected grams, and what is the relationship between the similarity of the gram sets of two strings and their edit distance. A primary advantage of the technique is that it can be adopted by a plethora of approximate string algorithms without the need to modify them substantially. We present our extensive experiments on real data sets to evaluate the technique, and show the significant performance improvements on three existing algorithms. 1.
Generality and Difficulty in Genetic Programming: Evolving a Sort
, 1993
"... Genetic Programming is applied to the task of evolving general iterative sorting algorithms. A connection between size and generality was discovered. Adding inverse size to the fitness measure along with correctness not only decreases the size of the resulting evolved algorithms, but also dramatical ..."
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Cited by 39 (1 self)
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Genetic Programming is applied to the task of evolving general iterative sorting algorithms. A connection between size and generality was discovered. Adding inverse size to the fitness measure along with correctness not only decreases the size of the resulting evolved algorithms, but also dramatically increases their generality and thus the effectiveness of the evolution process. In addition, a variety of differing problem formulations are investigated and the relative probability of success for each is reported. An example of an evolved sort from each problem formulation is presented, and an initial attempt is made to understand the variations in difficulty resulting from these differing problem formulations. 1 Introduction In order to further the application of Genetic Programming to evolution of complex algorithms, the work reported here explores the impact of differing problem formulations and fitness measures on the likelihood of evolving a general sorting algorithm on a given G...
Scan Primitives for Vector Computers
 In Proceedings Supercomputing '90
, 1990
"... This paper describes an optimized implementation of a set of scan (also called allprefix sums) primitives on a single processor of a CRAY YMP, and demonstrates that their use leads to greatly improved performance for several applications that cannot be vectorized with existing compiler technology. ..."
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Cited by 38 (9 self)
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This paper describes an optimized implementation of a set of scan (also called allprefix sums) primitives on a single processor of a CRAY YMP, and demonstrates that their use leads to greatly improved performance for several applications that cannot be vectorized with existing compiler technology. The algorithm used to implement the scans is based on an algorithm for parallel computers and is applicable with minor modifications to any registerbased vector computer. On the CRAY YMP, the asymptotic running time of the plusscan is about 2.25 times that of a vector add, and is within 20% of optimal. An important aspect of our implementation is that a set of segmented versions of these scans are only marginally more expensive than the unsegmented versions. These segmented versions can be used to execute a scan on multiple data sets without having to pay the vector startup cost (n 1=2 ) for each set. The paper describes a radix sorting routine based on the scans that is 13 times faster ...
Storage alternatives for large structured state spaces
 Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on Modelling Techniques and Tools for Computer Performance Evaluation, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1245
, 1997
"... We consider the problem of storing and searching a large state space obtained from a highlevel model such as a queueing network or a Petri net. After reviewing the traditional technique based on a single search tree, we demonstrate how an approach based on multiple levels of search trees offers adv ..."
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Cited by 38 (16 self)
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We consider the problem of storing and searching a large state space obtained from a highlevel model such as a queueing network or a Petri net. After reviewing the traditional technique based on a single search tree, we demonstrate how an approach based on multiple levels of search trees offers advantages in both memory and execution complexity. Further execution time improvements are obtained by exploiting the concept of “event locality”. We apply our technique to three large parametric models, and give detailed experimental results. 1