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How to leak a secret
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE THEORY AND APPLICATION OF CRYPTOLOGY AND INFORMATION SECURITY: ADVANCES IN CRYPTOLOGY
, 2001
"... In this paper we formalize the notion of a ring signature, which makes it possible to specify a set of possible signers without revealing which member actually produced the signature. Unlike group signatures, ring signatures have no group managers, no setup procedures, no revocation procedures, and ..."
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Cited by 1947 (5 self)
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In this paper we formalize the notion of a ring signature, which makes it possible to specify a set of possible signers without revealing which member actually produced the signature. Unlike group signatures, ring signatures have no group managers, no setup procedures, no revocation procedures, and no coordination: any user can choose any set of possible signers that includes himself, and sign any message by using his secret key and the others ’ public keys, without getting their approval or assistance. Ring signatures provide an elegant way to leak authoritative secrets in an anonymous way, to sign casual email in a way which can only be verified by its intended recipient, and to solve other problems in multiparty computations. The main contribution of this paper is a new construction of such signatures which is unconditionally signerambiguous, provably secure in the random oracle model, and exceptionally efficient: adding each ring member increases the cost of signing or verifying by a single modular multiplication and a single symmetric encryption.
An efficient system for nontransferable anonymous credentials with optional anonymity revocation
, 2001
"... Abstract. A credential system is a system in which users can obtain credentials from organizations and demonstrate possession of these credentials. Such a system is anonymous when transactions carried out by the same user cannot be linked. An anonymous credential system is of significant practical r ..."
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Cited by 231 (8 self)
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Abstract. A credential system is a system in which users can obtain credentials from organizations and demonstrate possession of these credentials. Such a system is anonymous when transactions carried out by the same user cannot be linked. An anonymous credential system is of significant practical relevance because it is the best means of providing privacy for users. In this paper we propose a practical anonymous credential system that is based on the strong RSA assumption and the decisional DiffieHellman assumption modulo a safe prime product and is considerably superior to existing ones: (1) We give the first practical solution that allows a user to unlinkably demonstrate possession of a credential as many times as necessary without involving the issuing organization. (2) To prevent misuse of anonymity, our scheme is the first to offer optional anonymity revocation for particular transactions. (3) Our scheme offers separability: all organizations can choose their cryptographic keys independently of each other. Moreover, we suggest more effective means of preventing users from sharing their credentials, by introducing allornothing sharing: a user who allows a friend to use one of her credentials once, gives him the ability to use all of her credentials, i.e., taking over her identity. This is implemented by a new primitive, called circular encryption, which is of independent interest, and can be realized from any semantically secure cryptosystem in the random oracle model.
Simulationsound nizk proofs for a practical language and constant size group signatures
, 2006
"... Noninteractive zeroknowledge proofs play an essential role in many cryptographic protocols. We suggest several NIZK proof systems based on prime order groups with a bilinear map. We obtain linear size proofs for relations among group elements without going through an expensive reduction to an NP ..."
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Cited by 51 (10 self)
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Noninteractive zeroknowledge proofs play an essential role in many cryptographic protocols. We suggest several NIZK proof systems based on prime order groups with a bilinear map. We obtain linear size proofs for relations among group elements without going through an expensive reduction to an NPcomplete language such as Circuit Satisfiability. Security of all our constructions is based on the decisional linear assumption. The NIZK proof system is quite general and has many applications such as digital signatures, verifiable encryption and group signatures. We focus on the latter and get the first group signature scheme satisfying the strong security definition of Bellare, Shi and Zhang [7] in the standard model without random oracles where each group signature consists only of a constant number of group elements. We also suggest a simulationsound NIZK proof of knowledge, which is much more efficient than previous constructions in the literature. Caveat: The constants are large, and therefore our schemes are not practical. Nonetheless, we find it very interesting for the first time to have NIZK proofs and group signatures that except for a constant factor are optimal without using the random oracle model to argue security.
Group Signatures: Better Efficiency and New Theoretical Aspects
 In proceedings of SCN ’04, LNCS series
, 2005
"... A group signature scheme allows members of a group to sign messages anonymously. To counter misuse, the socalled group manager can revoke the anonymity. ..."
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Cited by 47 (7 self)
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A group signature scheme allows members of a group to sign messages anonymously. To counter misuse, the socalled group manager can revoke the anonymity.
NonInteractive Anonymous Credentials
 AVAILABLE FROM THE IACR CRYPTOLOGY EPRINT ARCHIVE AS REPORT 2007/384.
, 2008
"... In this paper, we introduce Psignatures. A Psignature scheme consists of a signature scheme, a commitment scheme, and (1) an interactive protocol for obtaining a signature on a committed value; (2) a noninteractive proof system for proving that the contents of a commitment has been signed; (3) a ..."
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Cited by 44 (9 self)
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In this paper, we introduce Psignatures. A Psignature scheme consists of a signature scheme, a commitment scheme, and (1) an interactive protocol for obtaining a signature on a committed value; (2) a noninteractive proof system for proving that the contents of a commitment has been signed; (3) a noninteractive proof system for proving that a pair of commitments are commitments to the same value. We give a definition of security for Psignatures and show how they can be realized under appropriate assumptions about groups with a bilinear map. We make extensive use of the powerful suite of noninteractive proof techniques due to Groth and Sahai. Our Psignatures enable, for the first time, the design of a practical noninteractive anonymous credential system whose security does not rely on the random oracle model. In addition, they may serve as a useful building block for other
Blacklistable anonymous credentials: Blocking misbehaving users without TTPs
 In ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. ACM
, 2007
"... Several credential systems have been proposed in which users can authenticate to services anonymously. Since anonymity can give users the license to misbehave, some variants allow the selective deanonymization (or linking) of misbehaving users upon a complaint to a trusted third party (TTP). The abi ..."
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Cited by 40 (7 self)
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Several credential systems have been proposed in which users can authenticate to services anonymously. Since anonymity can give users the license to misbehave, some variants allow the selective deanonymization (or linking) of misbehaving users upon a complaint to a trusted third party (TTP). The ability of the TTP to revoke a user’s privacy at any time, however, is too strong a punishment for misbehavior. To limit the scope of deanonymization, systems such as “ecash ” have been proposed in which users are deanonymized under only certain types of welldefined misbehavior such as “double spending. ” While useful in some applications, it is not possible to generalize such techniques to more subjective definitions of misbehavior. We present the first anonymous credential system in which services can “blacklist ” misbehaving users without contacting a TTP. Since blacklisted users remain anonymous, misbehaviors can be judged subjectively without users fearing arbitrary deanonymization by a TTP.
Fully anonymous group signatures without random oracles
 In ASIACRYPT 2007, volume 4833 of LNCS
, 2007
"... We construct a new group signature scheme using bilinear groups. The group signature scheme is practical, both keys and group signatures consist of a constant number of group elements, and the scheme permits dynamic enrollment of new members. The scheme satisfies strong security requirements, in par ..."
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Cited by 31 (2 self)
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We construct a new group signature scheme using bilinear groups. The group signature scheme is practical, both keys and group signatures consist of a constant number of group elements, and the scheme permits dynamic enrollment of new members. The scheme satisfies strong security requirements, in particular providing protection against key exposures and not relying on random oracles in the security proof.
The Logic of Authentication Protocols
 Foundations of Security Analysis and Design, LNCS 2171
, 2001
"... This paper is based on a course Syverson taught at the 1st International School on Foundations of Security Analysis and Design (FOSAD'00) in Bertinoro, Italy in September 2000. Cervesato was a student there. The work of the first author was supported by ONR. The work of the second author was su ..."
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Cited by 31 (0 self)
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This paper is based on a course Syverson taught at the 1st International School on Foundations of Security Analysis and Design (FOSAD'00) in Bertinoro, Italy in September 2000. Cervesato was a student there. The work of the first author was supported by ONR. The work of the second author was supported by NSF grant INT9815731 "Logical Methods for Formal Verification of Software" and by NRL under contract N0017300C2086
A cryptographic framework for the controlled release of certified data
 In Security Protocols Workshop
, 2004
"... Abstract. It is usually the case that before a transaction can take place, some mutual trust must be established between the participants. Online, doing so requires the exchange of some certified information about the participants. The easy solution is to disclose one’s identity and reveal all of o ..."
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Cited by 31 (3 self)
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Abstract. It is usually the case that before a transaction can take place, some mutual trust must be established between the participants. Online, doing so requires the exchange of some certified information about the participants. The easy solution is to disclose one’s identity and reveal all of one’s certificates to establish such a trust relationship. However, it is clear that such an approach is unsatisfactory from a privacy point of view. In fact, often revealing any information that uniquely corresponds to a given individual is a bad idea from the privacy point of view. In this survey paper we describe a framework where for each transaction there is a precise specification of what pieces of certified data is revealed to each participant. We show how to specify transactions in this framework, give examples of transactions that use it, and describe the cryptographic building blocks that this framework is built upon. We conclude with bibliographic notes on the stateoftheart in this area. 1
Group Blind Digital Signatures: A Scalable Solution to Electronic Cash
 Financial Cryptography, Second International Conference, 1998, LNCS 1465
"... Abstract. In this paper we construct a practical group blind signature scheme. Our scheme combines the already existing notions of blind signatures and group signatures. It is an extension of Camenisch and Stadler’s Group Signature Scheme [5] that adds the blindness property. We show how to use our ..."
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Cited by 30 (3 self)
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Abstract. In this paper we construct a practical group blind signature scheme. Our scheme combines the already existing notions of blind signatures and group signatures. It is an extension of Camenisch and Stadler’s Group Signature Scheme [5] that adds the blindness property. We show how to use our group blind signatures to construct an electronic cash system in which multiple banks can securely distribute anonymous and untraceable ecash. Moreover, the identity of the ecash issuing bank is concealed, which is conceptually novel. The space, time, and communication complexities of the relevant parameters and operations are independent of the group size. 1