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Leftleaning RedBlack Trees
"... The redblack tree model for implementing balanced search trees, introduced by Guibas and Sedgewick thirty years ago, is now found throughout our computational infrastructure. Redblack trees are described in standard textbooks and are the underlying data structure for symboltable implementations w ..."
Abstract

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The redblack tree model for implementing balanced search trees, introduced by Guibas and Sedgewick thirty years ago, is now found throughout our computational infrastructure. Redblack trees are described in standard textbooks and are the underlying data structure for symboltable implementations within C++, Java, Python, BSD Unix, and many other modern systems. However, many of these implementations have sacrificed some of the original design goals (primarily in order to develop an effective implementation of the delete operation, which was incompletely specified in the original paper), so a new look is worthwhile. In this paper, we describe a new variant of redblack trees that meets many of the original design goals and leads to substantially simpler code for insert/delete, less than onefourth as much code as in implementations in common use. All redblack trees are based on implementing 23 or 234 trees within a binary tree, using red links to bind together internal nodes into 3nodes or 4nodes. The new code is based on combining three ideas: • Use a recursive implementation. • Require that all 3nodes lean left.