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Lower Bounds for Deterministic and Nondeterministic Branching Programs
 in Proceedings of the FCT'91, Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1991
"... We survey lower bounds established for the complexity of computing explicitly given Boolean functions by switchingandrectifier networks, branching programs and switching networks. We first consider the unrestricted case and then proceed to various restricted models. Among these are monotone networ ..."
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Cited by 58 (4 self)
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We survey lower bounds established for the complexity of computing explicitly given Boolean functions by switchingandrectifier networks, branching programs and switching networks. We first consider the unrestricted case and then proceed to various restricted models. Among these are monotone networks, boundedwidth devices , oblivious devices and readk times only devices. 1 Introduction The main goal of the Boolean complexity theory is to prove lower bounds on the complexity of computing "explicitly given" Boolean functions in interesting computational models. By "explicitly given" researchers usually mean "belonging to the class NP ". This is a very plausible interpretation since on the one hand this class contains the overwhelming majority of interesting Boolean functions and on the other hand it is small enough to prevent us from the necessity to take into account counting arguments. To illustrate the second point, let me remind the reader that already the class \Delta p 2 ,...
Nonuniform ACC circuit lower bounds
, 2010
"... The class ACC consists of circuit families with constant depth over unbounded fanin AND, OR, NOT, and MODm gates, where m> 1 is an arbitrary constant. We prove: • NTIME[2 n] does not have nonuniform ACC circuits of polynomial size. The size lower bound can be slightly strengthened to quasipoly ..."
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Cited by 36 (4 self)
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The class ACC consists of circuit families with constant depth over unbounded fanin AND, OR, NOT, and MODm gates, where m> 1 is an arbitrary constant. We prove: • NTIME[2 n] does not have nonuniform ACC circuits of polynomial size. The size lower bound can be slightly strengthened to quasipolynomials and other less natural functions. • ENP, the class of languages recognized in 2O(n) time with an NP oracle, doesn’t have nonuniform ACC circuits of 2no(1) size. The lower bound gives an exponential sizedepth tradeoff: for every d there is a δ> 0 such that ENP doesn’t have depthd ACC circuits of size 2nδ. Previously, it was not known whether EXP NP had depth3 polynomial size circuits made out of only MOD6 gates. The highlevel strategy is to design faster algorithms for the circuit satisfiability problem over ACC circuits, then prove that such algorithms entail the above lower bounds. The algorithm combines known properties of ACC with fast rectangular matrix multiplication and dynamic programming, while the second step requires a subtle strengthening of the author’s prior work [STOC’10]. Supported by the Josef Raviv Memorial Fellowship.
Circuit Complexity before the Dawn of the New Millennium
, 1997
"... The 1980's saw rapid and exciting development of techniques for proving lower bounds in circuit complexity. This pace has slowed recently, and there has even been work indicating that quite different proof techniques must be employed to advance beyond the current frontier of circuit lower bound ..."
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Cited by 33 (3 self)
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The 1980's saw rapid and exciting development of techniques for proving lower bounds in circuit complexity. This pace has slowed recently, and there has even been work indicating that quite different proof techniques must be employed to advance beyond the current frontier of circuit lower bounds. Although this has engendered pessimism in some quarters, there have in fact been many positive developments in the past few years showing that significant progress is possible on many fronts. This paper is a (necessarily incomplete) survey of the state of circuit complexity as we await the dawn of the new millennium.
Machine Models and Linear Time Complexity
 SIGACT News
, 1993
"... wer bounds. Machine models. Suppose that for every machine M 1 in model M 1 running in time t = t(n) there is a machine M 2 in M 2 which computes the same partial function in time g = g(t; n). If g = O(t)+O(n) we say that model M 2 simulates M 1 linearly. If g = O(t) the simulation has constantf ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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wer bounds. Machine models. Suppose that for every machine M 1 in model M 1 running in time t = t(n) there is a machine M 2 in M 2 which computes the same partial function in time g = g(t; n). If g = O(t)+O(n) we say that model M 2 simulates M 1 linearly. If g = O(t) the simulation has constantfactor overhead ; if g = O(t log t) it has a factorofO(log t) overhead , and so on. The simulation is online if each step of M 1 i
Definability of Languages by Generalized FirstOrder Formulas over (N
 In 23rd Symp. on Theoretical Aspects of Comp. Sci. (STACS’06
, 2006
"... Abstract. We consider an extension of firstorder logic by modular quantifiers of a fixed modulus q. Drawing on collapse results from finite model theory and techniques of finite semigroup theory, we show that if the only available numerical predicate is addition, then sentences in this logic cannot ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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Abstract. We consider an extension of firstorder logic by modular quantifiers of a fixed modulus q. Drawing on collapse results from finite model theory and techniques of finite semigroup theory, we show that if the only available numerical predicate is addition, then sentences in this logic cannot define the set of bit strings in which the number of 1’s is divisible by a prime p that does not divide q. More generally, we completely characterize the regular languages definable in this logic. The corresponding statement, with addition replaced by arbitrary numerical predicates, is equivalent to the conjectured separation of the circuit complexity class ACC from NC 1. Thus our theorem can be viewed as proving a highly uniform version of the conjecture. 1
Some Topics in Parallel Computation and Branching Programs
, 1995
"... There are two parts of this thesis: the first part gives two constructions of branching programs; the second part contains three results on models of parallel machines. The branching program model has turned out to be very useful for understanding the computational behavior of problems. In addition ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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There are two parts of this thesis: the first part gives two constructions of branching programs; the second part contains three results on models of parallel machines. The branching program model has turned out to be very useful for understanding the computational behavior of problems. In addition, several restrictions of branching programs, for example ordered binary decision diagrams, have proven to be successful data structures in several VLSI design and verification applications. We construct a branching program of o(n log 3 n) nodes for computing any threshold function on n variables and a branching program of o(n log 4 n) nodes for determining the sum of n variables modulo a fixed divisor. These are improvements over constructions of size 2(n 3=2 ) due to Lupanov [Lup65]. The second p...
A Note on a Theorem of Barrington, Straubing and Therien
 Information Processing Letters
, 1996
"... ..."
Circuit Complexity and the Expressive Power of Generalized FirstOrder Formulas
"... . The circuit complexity classes AC 0 ; ACC; and CC (also called pureACC) can be characterized as the classes of languages definable in certain extensions of firstorder logic. All of the known and conjectured inclusions among these classes have been shown to be equivalent to a single conjecture ..."
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. The circuit complexity classes AC 0 ; ACC; and CC (also called pureACC) can be characterized as the classes of languages definable in certain extensions of firstorder logic. All of the known and conjectured inclusions among these classes have been shown to be equivalent to a single conjecture concerning the form of the formulas required to define the regular languages they contain. (The conjecture states, roughly, that when a formula defines a regular language, predicates representing numerical relations on the positions in a string can be replaced by predicates computed by finite state automata.) Here this conjecture is established in a special case: It is shown that the conjecture holds for the subclasses of AC 0 ; ACC; and CC defined by restricting all the numerical predicates occurring in the logical formulas to be either unary relations, or the order relation ! : 1 Introduction Certain formulas of predicate logic can be interpreted in a natural way in strings over a fini...