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76
Numerical Shape from Shading and Occluding Boundaries
 Artifical Intelligence
, 1981
"... An iterative method for computing shape from shading using occluding boundary information is proposed. Some applications of this method are shown. We employ the stereographic plane to express the orientations of surface patches, rather than the more commonly.used gradient space. Use of the stereogra ..."
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Cited by 190 (14 self)
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An iterative method for computing shape from shading using occluding boundary information is proposed. Some applications of this method are shown. We employ the stereographic plane to express the orientations of surface patches, rather than the more commonly.used gradient space. Use of the stereographic plane makes it possible to incorporate occluding boundary information, but forces us to employ a smoothness constraint different from the one previously proposed. The new constraint follows directly from a particular definition of surface smoothness. We solve the set of equations arising from the smoothness constraints and the imageirradiance equation iteratively, using occluding boundary information to supply boundary conditions. Good initial values are found at certain points to help reduce the number of iterations required to reach a reasonable solution. Numerical experiments show that the method is effective and robust. Finally, we analyze scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures using this method. Other applications are also proposed. 1.
ModelBased Recognition in Robot Vision
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1986
"... This paper presents a comparative study and survey of modelbased objectrecognition algorithms for robot vision. The goal of these algorithms is to recognize the identity, position, and orientation of randomly oriented industrial parts. In one form this is commonly referred to as the “binpicking ” ..."
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Cited by 160 (0 self)
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This paper presents a comparative study and survey of modelbased objectrecognition algorithms for robot vision. The goal of these algorithms is to recognize the identity, position, and orientation of randomly oriented industrial parts. In one form this is commonly referred to as the “binpicking ” problem, in which the parts to be recognized are presented in a jumbled bin. The paper is organized according to 2D, 2&D, and 3D object representations, which are used as the basis for the recognition algorithms. Three
Extended gaussian images
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1984
"... This is a primer on extended Gaussian Images. Extended Gaussian Images are useful for representing the shapes of surfaces. They can be computed easily from: 1. Needle maps obtained using photometric stereo, or 2. Depth maps generated by ranging devices or stereo. Importantly, they can also be determ ..."
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Cited by 148 (3 self)
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This is a primer on extended Gaussian Images. Extended Gaussian Images are useful for representing the shapes of surfaces. They can be computed easily from: 1. Needle maps obtained using photometric stereo, or 2. Depth maps generated by ranging devices or stereo. Importantly, they can also be determined simply from geometric models of the objects. Extended Gaussian images can be of use in at least two of the tasks facing a machine vision system.
(MIT AI Memo 740)
Surface Reflection: Physical and Geometrical Perspectives
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1991
"... Machine vision can greatly benefit from the development of accurate reflectance models. There are two approaches to the study of reflection: physical and geometrical optics. While geometrical models may be consumed as mere approximations to physical models, they possess simpler mathematical forms th ..."
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Cited by 116 (26 self)
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Machine vision can greatly benefit from the development of accurate reflectance models. There are two approaches to the study of reflection: physical and geometrical optics. While geometrical models may be consumed as mere approximations to physical models, they possess simpler mathematical forms that often render them more usable than physical models. However, geometrical models are applicable only when the wavelength of incident light is small compared to the dimensions of the surface imperfections. Therefore, it is incorrect to use these models to interpret or predict reflections from smooth surfaces, and only physical models are capable of describing the underlying reflection mechanism.
Helmholtz Stereopsis: Exploiting Reciprocity for Surface Reconstruction
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 2002
"... Abstract. We present a method – termed Helmholtz stereopsis – for reconstructing the geometry of objects from a collection of images. Unlike most existing methods for surface reconstruction (e.g., stereo vision, structure from motion, photometric stereo), Helmholtz stereopsis makes no assumptions ab ..."
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Cited by 99 (13 self)
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Abstract. We present a method – termed Helmholtz stereopsis – for reconstructing the geometry of objects from a collection of images. Unlike most existing methods for surface reconstruction (e.g., stereo vision, structure from motion, photometric stereo), Helmholtz stereopsis makes no assumptions about the nature of the bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of objects. This new method of multinocular stereopsis exploits Helmholtz reciprocity by choosing pairs of light source and camera positions that guarantee that the ratio of the emitted radiance to the incident irradiance is the same for corresponding points in the two images. The method provides direct estimates of both depth and field of surface normals, and consequently weds the advantages of both conventional and photometric stereopsis. Results from our implementations lend empirical support to our technique. 1
Photometric Stereo with General, Unknown Lighting
 In IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
, 2001
"... Work on photometric stereo has shown how to recover the shape and reflectance properties of an object using multiple images taken with a fixed viewpoint and variable lighting conditions. This work has primarily relied on the presence of a single point source of light in each image. In this paper we ..."
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Cited by 93 (8 self)
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Work on photometric stereo has shown how to recover the shape and reflectance properties of an object using multiple images taken with a fixed viewpoint and variable lighting conditions. This work has primarily relied on the presence of a single point source of light in each image. In this paper we show how to perform photometric stereo assuming that all lights in a scene are isotropic and distant from the object but otherwise unconstrained. Lighting in each image may be an unknown and arbitrary combination of diffuse, point and extended sources. Our work is based on recent results showing that for Lambertian objects, general lighting conditions can be represented using low order spherical harmonics. Using this representation we can recover shape by performing a simple optimization in a lowdimensional space. We also analyze the shape ambiguities that arise in such a representation. 1.
A Theory of Specular Surface Geometry
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER VISION
, 1995
"... A theoretical framework is introduced for the perception of specular surface geometry. When an observer moves in threedimensional space, real scene features, such as surface markings, remain stationary with respect to the surfaces they belong to. In contrast, a virtual feature, which is the specula ..."
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Cited by 74 (2 self)
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A theoretical framework is introduced for the perception of specular surface geometry. When an observer moves in threedimensional space, real scene features, such as surface markings, remain stationary with respect to the surfaces they belong to. In contrast, a virtual feature, which is the specular reflection of a real feature, travels on the surface. Based on the notion of caustics, a novel feature classification algorithm is developed that distinguishes real and virtual features from their image trajectories that result from observer motion. Next, using support functions of curves, a closedform relation is derived between the image trajectory of a virtual feature and the geometry of the specular surface it travels on. It is shown that in the 2D case where camera motion and the surface profile are coplanar, the profile is uniquely recovered by tracking just two unknown virtual features. Finally, these results are generalized to the case of arbitrary 3D surface profiles that are trav...
Shape and Materials by Example: A Photometric Stereo Approach
 IN PROC. IEEE CONF. COMPUTER VISION AND PATTERN RECOGNITION
, 2003
"... This paper presents a technique for computing the geometry of objects with general reflectance properties from images. For surfaces with varying material properties, a full segmentation into different material types is also computed. It is assumed that the camera viewpoint is fixed, but the illumina ..."
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Cited by 66 (3 self)
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This paper presents a technique for computing the geometry of objects with general reflectance properties from images. For surfaces with varying material properties, a full segmentation into different material types is also computed. It is assumed that the camera viewpoint is fixed, but the illumination varies over the input sequence. It is also assumed that one or more example objects with similar materials and known geometry are imaged under the same illumination conditions. Unlike most previous work in shape reconstruction, this technique can handle objects with arbitrary and spatiallyvarying BRDFs. Furthermore, the approach works for arbitrary distant and unknown lighting environments. Finally, almost no calibration is needed, making the approach exceptionally simple to apply.
ExampleBased Photometric Stereo: Shape Reconstruction with General . . .
, 2005
"... This paper presents a technique for computing the geometry of objects with general reflectance properties from images. For surfaces ..."
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Cited by 60 (2 self)
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This paper presents a technique for computing the geometry of objects with general reflectance properties from images. For surfaces
A Theory of Refractive and Specular 3D Shape by Lightpath Triangulation
"... We investigate the feasibility of reconstructing an arbitrarilyshaped specular scene (refractive or mirrorlike) from one or more viewpoints. By reducing shape recovery to the problem of reconstructing individual 3D light paths that cross the image plane, we obtain three key results. First, we show ..."
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Cited by 51 (5 self)
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We investigate the feasibility of reconstructing an arbitrarilyshaped specular scene (refractive or mirrorlike) from one or more viewpoints. By reducing shape recovery to the problem of reconstructing individual 3D light paths that cross the image plane, we obtain three key results. First, we show how to compute the depth map of a specular scene from a single viewpoint, when the scene redirects incoming light just once. Second, for scenes where incoming light undergoes two refractions or reflections, we show that three viewpoints are sufficient to enable reconstruction in the general case. Third, we show that it is impossible to reconstruct individual light paths when light is redirected more than twice. Our analysis assumes that, for every point on the image plane, we know at least one 3D point on its light path. This leads to reconstruction algorithms that rely on an “environment matting” procedure to establish pixeltopoint correspondences along a light path. Preliminary results for a variety of scenes (mirror, glass, etc) are also presented.