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28
Compressive sensing
 IEEE Signal Processing Mag
, 2007
"... The Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem tells us that in order to not lose information when uniformly sampling a signal we must sample at least two times faster than its bandwidth. In many applications, including digital image and video cameras, the Nyquist rate can be so high that we end up with too m ..."
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Cited by 326 (41 self)
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The Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem tells us that in order to not lose information when uniformly sampling a signal we must sample at least two times faster than its bandwidth. In many applications, including digital image and video cameras, the Nyquist rate can be so high that we end up with too many samples and must compress in order to store or transmit them. In other applications, including imaging systems (medical scanners, radars) and highspeed analogtodigital converters, increasing the sampling rate or density beyond the current stateoftheart is very expensive. In this lecture, we will learn about a new technique that tackles these issues using compressive sensing [1, 2]. We will replace the conventional sampling and reconstruction operations with a more general linear measurement scheme coupled with an optimization in order to acquire certain kinds of signals at a rate significantly below Nyquist. 2
Compressed sensing and best kterm approximation
 J. Amer. Math. Soc
, 2009
"... Compressed sensing is a new concept in signal processing where one seeks to minimize the number of measurements to be taken from signals while still retaining the information necessary to approximate them well. The ideas have their origins in certain abstract results from functional analysis and app ..."
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Cited by 158 (11 self)
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Compressed sensing is a new concept in signal processing where one seeks to minimize the number of measurements to be taken from signals while still retaining the information necessary to approximate them well. The ideas have their origins in certain abstract results from functional analysis and approximation theory by Kashin [23] but were recently brought into the forefront by the work of Candès, Romberg and Tao [7, 5, 6] and Donoho [9] who constructed concrete algorithms and showed their promise in application. There remain several fundamental questions on both the theoretical and practical side of compressed sensing. This paper is primarily concerned about one of these theoretical issues revolving around just how well compressed sensing can approximate a given signal from a given budget of fixed linear measurements, as compared to adaptive linear measurements. More precisely, we consider discrete signals x ∈ IR N, allocate n < N linear measurements of x, and we describe the range of k for which these measurements encode enough information to recover x in the sense of ℓp to the accuracy of best kterm approximation. We also consider the problem of having such accuracy only with high probability.
Sparsity and Incoherence in Compressive Sampling
, 2006
"... We consider the problem of reconstructing a sparse signal x 0 ∈ R n from a limited number of linear measurements. Given m randomly selected samples of Ux 0, where U is an orthonormal matrix, we show that ℓ1 minimization recovers x 0 exactly when the number of measurements exceeds m ≥ Const · µ 2 (U) ..."
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Cited by 145 (14 self)
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We consider the problem of reconstructing a sparse signal x 0 ∈ R n from a limited number of linear measurements. Given m randomly selected samples of Ux 0, where U is an orthonormal matrix, we show that ℓ1 minimization recovers x 0 exactly when the number of measurements exceeds m ≥ Const · µ 2 (U) · S · log n, where S is the number of nonzero components in x 0, and µ is the largest entry in U properly normalized: µ(U) = √ n · maxk,j Uk,j. The smaller µ, the fewer samples needed. The result holds for “most ” sparse signals x 0 supported on a fixed (but arbitrary) set T. Given T, if the sign of x 0 for each nonzero entry on T and the observed values of Ux 0 are drawn at random, the signal is recovered with overwhelming probability. Moreover, there is a sense in which this is nearly optimal since any method succeeding with the same probability would require just about this many samples.
Improved approximation algorithms for large matrices via random projections
 in Proceedings of the 47th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS
, 2006
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Random projections of smooth manifolds
 Foundations of Computational Mathematics
, 2006
"... We propose a new approach for nonadaptive dimensionality reduction of manifoldmodeled data, demonstrating that a small number of random linear projections can preserve key information about a manifoldmodeled signal. We center our analysis on the effect of a random linear projection operator Φ: R N ..."
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Cited by 81 (22 self)
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We propose a new approach for nonadaptive dimensionality reduction of manifoldmodeled data, demonstrating that a small number of random linear projections can preserve key information about a manifoldmodeled signal. We center our analysis on the effect of a random linear projection operator Φ: R N → R M, M < N, on a smooth wellconditioned Kdimensional submanifold M ⊂ R N. As our main theoretical contribution, we establish a sufficient number M of random projections to guarantee that, with high probability, all pairwise Euclidean and geodesic distances between points on M are wellpreserved under the mapping Φ. Our results bear strong resemblance to the emerging theory of Compressed Sensing (CS), in which sparse signals can be recovered from small numbers of random linear measurements. As in CS, the random measurements we propose can be used to recover the original data in R N. Moreover, like the fundamental bound in CS, our requisite M is linear in the “information level” K and logarithmic in the ambient dimension N; we also identify a logarithmic dependence on the volume and conditioning of the manifold. In addition to recovering faithful approximations to manifoldmodeled signals, however, the random projections we propose can also be used to discern key properties about the manifold. We discuss connections and contrasts with existing techniques in manifold learning, a setting where dimensionality reducing mappings are typically nonlinear and constructed adaptively from a set of sampled training data.
Compressed Sensing and Redundant Dictionaries
"... This article extends the concept of compressed sensing to signals that are not sparse in an orthonormal basis but rather in a redundant dictionary. It is shown that a matrix, which is a composition of a random matrix of certain type and a deterministic dictionary, has small restricted isometry con ..."
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Cited by 78 (12 self)
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This article extends the concept of compressed sensing to signals that are not sparse in an orthonormal basis but rather in a redundant dictionary. It is shown that a matrix, which is a composition of a random matrix of certain type and a deterministic dictionary, has small restricted isometry constants. Thus, signals that are sparse with respect to the dictionary can be recovered via Basis Pursuit from a small number of random measurements. Further, thresholding is investigated as recovery algorithm for compressed sensing and conditions are provided that guarantee reconstruction with high probability. The different schemes are compared by numerical experiments.
Detection and Estimation with Compressive Measurements
, 2006
"... The recently introduced theory of compressed sensing enables the reconstruction of sparse or compressible signals from a small set of nonadaptive, linear measurements. If properly chosen, the number of measurements can be much smaller than the number of Nyquist rate samples. Interestingly, it has be ..."
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Cited by 29 (4 self)
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The recently introduced theory of compressed sensing enables the reconstruction of sparse or compressible signals from a small set of nonadaptive, linear measurements. If properly chosen, the number of measurements can be much smaller than the number of Nyquist rate samples. Interestingly, it has been shown that random projections are a satisfactory measurement scheme. This has inspired the design of physical systems that directly implement similar measurement schemes. However, despite the intense focus on the reconstruction of signals, many (if not most) signal processing problems do not require a full reconstruction of the signal – we are often interested only in solving some sort of detection problem or in the estimation of some function of the data. In this report, we show that the compressed sensing framework is useful for a wide range of statistical inference tasks. In particular, we demonstrate how to solve a variety of signal detection and estimation problems given the measurements without ever reconstructing the signals themselves. We provide theoretical bounds along with experimental results. 1
Feature selection in face recognition: A sparse representation perspective
, 2007
"... In this paper, we examine the role of feature selection in face recognition from the perspective of sparse representation. We cast the recognition problem as finding a sparse representation of the test image features w.r.t. the training set. The sparse representation can be accurately and efficientl ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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In this paper, we examine the role of feature selection in face recognition from the perspective of sparse representation. We cast the recognition problem as finding a sparse representation of the test image features w.r.t. the training set. The sparse representation can be accurately and efficiently computed by ℓ 1minimization. The proposed simple algorithm generalizes conventional face recognition classifiers such as nearest neighbors and nearest subspaces. Using face recognition under varying illumination and expression as an example, we show that if sparsity in the recognition problem is properly harnessed, the choice of features is no longer critical. What is critical, however, is whether the number of features is sufficient and whether the sparse representation is correctly found. We conduct extensive experiments to validate the significance of imposing sparsity using the Extended Yale B database and the AR database. Our thorough evaluation shows that, using conventional features such as Eigenfaces and facial parts, the proposed algorithm achieves much higher recognition accuracy on face images with variation in either illumination or expression. Furthermore, other unconventional features such as severely downsampled images and randomly projected features perform almost equally well with the increase of feature dimensions. The differences in performance between different features become insignificant as the featurespace dimension is sufficiently large.
Compressed sensing and source separation
 in International Conference on Independent Component Analysis and Blind Source Separation
, 2007
"... Abstract. Separation of underdetermined mixtures is an important problem in signal processing that has attracted a great deal of attention over the years. Prior knowledge is required to solve such problems and one of the most common forms of structure exploited is sparsity. Another central problem i ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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Abstract. Separation of underdetermined mixtures is an important problem in signal processing that has attracted a great deal of attention over the years. Prior knowledge is required to solve such problems and one of the most common forms of structure exploited is sparsity. Another central problem in signal processing is sampling. Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to sample well below the Nyquist limit whenever the signal has additional structure. This theory is known as compressed sensing or compressive sampling and a wealth of theoretical insight has been gained for signals that permit a sparse representation. In this paper we point out several similarities between compressed sensing and source separation. We here mainly assume that the mixing system is known, i.e. we do not study blind source separation. With a particular view towards source separation, we extend some of the results in compressed sensing to more general overcomplete sparse representations and study the sensitivity of the solution to errors in the mixing system. 1 Compressed Sensing Compressed sensing or compressive sampling is a new emerging technique in signal processing, coding and information theory. For a good place of departure see for example [1] and [2]. Assume that a signal y is to be measured. In general y is assumed to be a function defined on a continuous domain, however, for the discussion here it can be assumed to be a finite vector, i.e. y ∈ R Ny say. In a standard DSP textbook we learn that one has to sample a function on a continuous domain at least at its Nyquist rate. However, assume that we know that y has a certain structure, for example we assume that y can be expressed as y = Φs, (1) where Φ ∈ R Ny×Ns and where we allow Ns ≥ Ny, i.e. we allow Φs to be an overcomplete representation of y. Crucially, we assume s to be sparse, i.e. we assume that only a small number of elements in s are nonzero or, more generally,
Optimal computation
 ICM Proceedings, Madrid 1
, 2006
"... Abstract. A large portion of computation is concerned with approximating a function u. Typically, there are many ways to proceed with such an approximation leading to a variety of algorithms. We address the question of how we should evaluate such algorithms and compare them. In particular, when can ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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Abstract. A large portion of computation is concerned with approximating a function u. Typically, there are many ways to proceed with such an approximation leading to a variety of algorithms. We address the question of how we should evaluate such algorithms and compare them. In particular, when can we say that a particular algorithm is optimal or near optimal? We shall base our analysis on the approximation error that is achieved with a given (computational or information) budget n. We shall see that the formulation of optimal algorithms depends to a large extent on the context of the problem. For example, numerically approximating the solution to a PDE is different from approximating a signal or image (for the purposes of compression).