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185
The Random Subspace Method for constructing decision forests
 IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell
, 1998
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A System for Induction of Oblique Decision Trees
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1994
"... This article describes a new system for induction of oblique decision trees. This system, OC1, combines deterministic hillclimbing with two forms of randomization to find a good oblique split (in the form of a hyperplane) at each node of a decision tree. Oblique decision tree methods are tuned espe ..."
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Cited by 268 (14 self)
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This article describes a new system for induction of oblique decision trees. This system, OC1, combines deterministic hillclimbing with two forms of randomization to find a good oblique split (in the form of a hyperplane) at each node of a decision tree. Oblique decision tree methods are tuned especially for domains in which the attributes are numeric, although they can be adapted to symbolic or mixed symbolic/numeric attributes. We present extensive empirical studies, using both real and artificial data, that analyze OC1's ability to construct oblique trees that are smaller and more accurate than their axisparallel counterparts. We also examine the benefits of randomization for the construction of oblique decision trees. 1. Introduction Current data collection technology provides a unique challenge and opportunity for automated machine learning techniques. The advent of major scientific projects such as the Human Genome Project, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the human brain mappi...
Automatic Construction of Decision Trees from Data: A MultiDisciplinary Survey
 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
, 1997
"... Decision trees have proved to be valuable tools for the description, classification and generalization of data. Work on constructing decision trees from data exists in multiple disciplines such as statistics, pattern recognition, decision theory, signal processing, machine learning and artificial ne ..."
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Cited by 164 (1 self)
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Decision trees have proved to be valuable tools for the description, classification and generalization of data. Work on constructing decision trees from data exists in multiple disciplines such as statistics, pattern recognition, decision theory, signal processing, machine learning and artificial neural networks. Researchers in these disciplines, sometimes working on quite different problems, identified similar issues and heuristics for decision tree construction. This paper surveys existing work on decision tree construction, attempting to identify the important issues involved, directions the work has taken and the current state of the art. Keywords: classification, treestructured classifiers, data compaction 1. Introduction Advances in data collection methods, storage and processing technology are providing a unique challenge and opportunity for automated data exploration techniques. Enormous amounts of data are being collected daily from major scientific projects e.g., Human Genome...
Separateandconquer rule learning
 Artificial Intelligence Review
, 1999
"... This paper is a survey of inductive rule learning algorithms that use a separateandconquer strategy. This strategy can be traced back to the AQ learning system and still enjoys popularity as can be seen from its frequent use in inductive logic programming systems. We will put this wide variety of ..."
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Cited by 142 (29 self)
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This paper is a survey of inductive rule learning algorithms that use a separateandconquer strategy. This strategy can be traced back to the AQ learning system and still enjoys popularity as can be seen from its frequent use in inductive logic programming systems. We will put this wide variety of algorithms into a single framework and analyze them along three different dimensions, namely their search, language and overfitting avoidance biases.
Learning classification trees
 Statistics and Computing
, 1992
"... Algorithms for learning cIassification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. This paper outlines how a tree learning algorithm can be derived using Bayesian statistics. This iutroduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. T ..."
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Cited by 133 (8 self)
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Algorithms for learning cIassification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. This paper outlines how a tree learning algorithm can be derived using Bayesian statistics. This iutroduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule is similar to QuinIan’s information gain, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan’s C4 (1987) and Breiman et aL’s CART (1984) show the full Bayesian algorithm produces more accurate predictions than versions
Multivariate Decision Trees
, 1992
"... Multivariate decision trees overcome a representational limitation of univariate decision trees: univariate decision trees are restricted to splits of the instance space that are orthogonal to the feature's axis. This paper discusses the following issues for constructing multivariate decision t ..."
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Cited by 123 (6 self)
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Multivariate decision trees overcome a representational limitation of univariate decision trees: univariate decision trees are restricted to splits of the instance space that are orthogonal to the feature's axis. This paper discusses the following issues for constructing multivariate decision trees: representing a multivariate test, including symbolic and numeric features, learning the coefficients of a multivariate test, selecting the features to include in a test, and pruning of multivariate decision trees. We present some new and review some wellknown methods for forming multivariate decision trees. The methods are compared across a variety of learning tasks to assess each method's ability to find concise, accurate decision trees. The results demonstrate that some multivariate methods are more effective than others. In addition, the experiments confirm that allowing multivariate tests improves the accuracy of the resulting decision tree over univariate trees. Contents 1 Introduc...
Iterative Optimization and Simplification of Hierarchical Clusterings
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1995
"... Clustering is often used for discovering structure in data. Clustering systems differ in the objective function used to evaluate clustering quality and the control strategy used to search the space of clusterings. Ideally, the search strategy should consistently construct clusterings of high qual ..."
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Cited by 111 (2 self)
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Clustering is often used for discovering structure in data. Clustering systems differ in the objective function used to evaluate clustering quality and the control strategy used to search the space of clusterings. Ideally, the search strategy should consistently construct clusterings of high quality, but be computationally inexpensive as well. In general, we cannot have it both ways, but we can partition the search so that a system inexpensively constructs a `tentative' clustering for initial examination, followed by iterative optimization, which continues to search in background for improved clusterings. Given this motivation, we evaluate an inexpensive strategy for creating initial clusterings, coupled with several control strategies for iterative optimization, each of which repeatedly modifies an initial clustering in search of a better one. One of these methods appears novel as an iterative optimization strategy in clustering contexts. Once a clustering has been construct...
Data management and analysis methods
 In N. Denzin & Lincoln (Eds.) Handbook of qualitative research
, 2000
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On the Boosting Ability of TopDown Decision Tree Learning Algorithms
 In Proceedings of the TwentyEighth Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
, 1995
"... We analyze the performance of topdown algorithms for decision tree learning, such as those employed by the widely used C4.5 and CART software packages. Our main result is a proof that such algorithms are boosting algorithms. By this we mean that if the functions used to label the internal nodes of ..."
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Cited by 89 (6 self)
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We analyze the performance of topdown algorithms for decision tree learning, such as those employed by the widely used C4.5 and CART software packages. Our main result is a proof that such algorithms are boosting algorithms. By this we mean that if the functions used to label the internal nodes of the decision tree can weakly approximate the unknown target function, then the topdown algorithms we study will amplify this weak advantage to build a tree achieving any desired level of accuracy. The bounds we obtain for this amplification show an interesting dependence on the splitting criterion function G used by the topdown algorithm. More precisely, if the functions used to label the internal nodes have error 1=2 \Gamma fl as approximations to the target function, then for the splitting criteria used by CART and C4.5, trees of size (1=ffl) O(1=fl 2 ffl 2 ) and (1=ffl) O(log(1=ffl)=fl 2 ) (respectively) suffice to drive the error below ffl. Thus, small constant advantage over...
Fuzzy decision trees: issues and methods
 IEEE Trans. Systems Man Cybernet. Part B (Cybernetics
, 1998
"... Decision trees are one of the most popular choices for learning and reasoning from featurebased examples. They have undergone a number of alterations to deal with language and measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we present another modification, aimed at combining symbolic decision trees with ..."
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Cited by 86 (5 self)
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Decision trees are one of the most popular choices for learning and reasoning from featurebased examples. They have undergone a number of alterations to deal with language and measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we present another modification, aimed at combining symbolic decision trees with approximate reasoning offered by fuzzy representation. The intent is to exploit complementary advantages of both: popularity in applications to learning from examples and high knowledge comprehensibility of decision trees, ability to deal with inexact and uncertain information of fuzzy representation. The merger utilizes existing methodologies in both areas to full advantage, but is by no means trivial. In particular, knowledge inferences must be newly defined for the fuzzy tree. We propose a number of alternatives, based on rulebased systems and fuzzy control. We also explore capabilities that the new framework provides. The resulting learning method is most suitable for stationary problems, with both numerical and symbolic features, when the goal is both high knowledge comprehensibility and gradually changing output. In this paper, we describe the methodology and provide simple illustrations. 1