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Specification Matching of Software Components
 ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology
, 1996
"... Specification matching is a way to compare two software components based on descriptions of the components' behaviors. In the context of software reuse and library retrieval, it can help determine whether one component can be substituted for another or how one can be modified to fit the requireme ..."
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Cited by 277 (4 self)
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Specification matching is a way to compare two software components based on descriptions of the components' behaviors. In the context of software reuse and library retrieval, it can help determine whether one component can be substituted for another or how one can be modified to fit the requirements of the other. In the context of objectoriented programming, it can help determine when one type is a behavioral subtype of another. We use formal specifications to describe the behavior of software components, and hence, to determine whether two components match. We give precise definitions of not just exact match, but more relevantly, various flavors of relaxed match. These definitions capture the notions of generalization, specialization, and substitutability of software components. Since our formal specifications are pre and postconditions written as predicates in firstorder logic, we rely on theorem proving to determine match and mismatch. We give examples from our impleme...
Signature Matching: a Tool for Using Software Libraries
 ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology
, 1995
"... this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of Wright Laboratory or the U. S. Government. The U. S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government pu ..."
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Cited by 116 (2 self)
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this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of Wright Laboratory or the U. S. Government. The U. S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon. This manuscript is submitted for publication with the understanding that the U. S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes. Authors' address: School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213; email: amy;wing@cs.cmu.edu. To appear, ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (TOSEM), April 1995. Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that the copies are not made or distributed for direct commercial advantage, the ACM copyright notice and the title of the publication and its date appear, and notice is given that copying is by permission of the Association for Computing Machinery. To copy otherwise, or to republish, requires a fee and/or specific permission. c fl 1995 ACM xxxxxxxx/xx/xxxxxxxx $xx.xx 2 \Delta A. Moormann Zaremski and J. M. Wing ware libraries successfully, especially as libraries increase in size, is the availability of good tools to organize, navigate through, and retrieve from libraries. Currently many libraries use the file system for their only organization (directories and files) and file system and editor commands for navigation and retrieval. For example, the local ML library is organized with categories of components as directories (e.g., local/lib/Container/, local/lib/Threads/); one uses ls and
Dynamics in ML
, 1993
"... Objects with dynamic types allow the integration of operations that essentially require runtime typechecking into staticallytyped languages. This article presents two extensions of the ML language with dynamics, based on our work on the CAML implementation of ML, and discusses their usefulness. ..."
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Cited by 56 (0 self)
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Objects with dynamic types allow the integration of operations that essentially require runtime typechecking into staticallytyped languages. This article presents two extensions of the ML language with dynamics, based on our work on the CAML implementation of ML, and discusses their usefulness. The main novelty of this work is the combination of dynamics with polymorphism.
Retrieving Library Functions By Unifying Types Modulo Linear Isomorphism
, 1992
"... An improved method to retrieve a library function via its Hindley/Milner type is described. Previous retrieval systems have identified types that are isomorphic in any Cartesian closed category (CCC), and have retrieved library functions of types that are either isomorphic to the query, or have ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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An improved method to retrieve a library function via its Hindley/Milner type is described. Previous retrieval systems have identified types that are isomorphic in any Cartesian closed category (CCC), and have retrieved library functions of types that are either isomorphic to the query, or have instances that are. Sometimes it is useful to instantiate the query too, which requires unification modulo isomorphism. Although unifiability modulo CCCisomorphism is undecidable, it is decidable modulo linear isomorphism, that is, isomorphism in any symmetric monoidal closed (SMC) category. We argue that the linear isomorphism should retrieve library functions almost as well as CCCisomorphism, and we report experiments with such retrieval from the Lazy ML library. When unification is used, the system retrieves too many functions, but sorting by the sizes of the unifiers tends to place the most relevant functions first. R'esum'e Ce papier pr'esente une nouvelle m'ethode pour la re...
Memoization in typedirected partial evaluation
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2002 ACM SIGPLAN/SIGSOFT CONFERENCE ON GENERATIVE PROGRAMMING AND COMPONENT ENGINEERING, NUMBER 2487 IN LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2002
"... We use a code generator—typedirected partial evaluation— to verify conversions between isomorphic types, or more precisely to verify that a composite function is the identity function at some complicated type. A typed functional language such as ML provides a natural support to express the function ..."
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Cited by 14 (6 self)
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We use a code generator—typedirected partial evaluation— to verify conversions between isomorphic types, or more precisely to verify that a composite function is the identity function at some complicated type. A typed functional language such as ML provides a natural support to express the functions and typedirected partial evaluation provides a convenient setting to obtain the normal form of their composition. However, offtheshelf typedirected partial evaluation turns out to yield gigantic normal forms. We identify that this gigantism is due to redundancies, and that these redundancies originate in the handling of sums, which uses delimited continuations. We successfully eliminate these redundancies by extending typedirected partial evaluation with memoization capabilities. The result only works for pure functional programs, but it provides an unexpected use of code generation and it yields ordersofmagnitude improvements both in time and in space for type isomorphisms.
Remarks on isomorphisms in typed lambda calculi with empty and sum types
 In Proc. of the 17 th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS’02
, 2002
"... Tarski asked whether the arithmetic identities taught in high school are complete for showing all arithmetic equations valid for the natural numbers. The answer to this question for the language of arithmetic expressions using a constant for the number one and the operations of product and exponenti ..."
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Cited by 10 (2 self)
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Tarski asked whether the arithmetic identities taught in high school are complete for showing all arithmetic equations valid for the natural numbers. The answer to this question for the language of arithmetic expressions using a constant for the number one and the operations of product and exponentiation is affirmative, and the complete equational theory also characterises isomorphism in the typed lambda calculus, where the constant for one and the operations of product and exponentiation respectively correspond to the unit type and the product and arrow type constructors. This paper studies isomorphisms in typed lambda calculi with empty and sum types from this viewpoint. We close an open problem by establishing that the theory of type isomorphisms in the presence of product, arrow, and sum types (with or without the unit type) is not finitely axiomatisable. Further, we observe that for type theories with arrow, empty and sum types the correspondence between isomorphism and arithmetic equality generally breaks down, but that it still holds in some particular cases including that of type isomorphism with the empty type and equality with zero. 1
Retrieving Software Components That Minimize Adaptation Effort
 Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Automated Software Engineering
, 1997
"... Given a software library whose components are represented by formal specifications, we distinguish between two types of retrieval procedures: exact retrieval, whereby, given a query K, we identify all (and only) the library components that are correct with respect to K; approximate retrieval, which ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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Given a software library whose components are represented by formal specifications, we distinguish between two types of retrieval procedures: exact retrieval, whereby, given a query K, we identify all (and only) the library components that are correct with respect to K; approximate retrieval, which is invoked in case exact retrieval fails, and which (ideally) identifies the library components that minimize the required adaptation effort (once such a component is retrieved, the effort of adapting it to satisfy query K is minimal over the set of all the components of the library). To this effect, we define four measures of functional distance between specifications, and devising algorithms that minimize these measures over a structured set of components; then we discuss to what extent these measures can be used as predictors of adaptation effort. Correspondence author. 1 Exact Retrieval and Approximate Retrieval Software libraries are repositories where software components can be ...
A Linear Logical View of Linear Type Isomorphisms
, 1999
"... . The notion of isomorphisms of types has many theoretical as well as practical consequences, and isomorphisms of types have been investigated at length over the past years. Isomorphisms in weak system (like linear lambda calculus) have recently been investigated due to their practical interest ..."
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Cited by 9 (2 self)
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. The notion of isomorphisms of types has many theoretical as well as practical consequences, and isomorphisms of types have been investigated at length over the past years. Isomorphisms in weak system (like linear lambda calculus) have recently been investigated due to their practical interest in library search. In this paper we give a remarkably simple and elegant characterization of linear isomorphisms in the setting of Multiplicative Linear Logic (MLL), by making an essential use of the correctness criterion for Proof Nets due to Girard. 1 Introduction and Survey The interest in building models satisfying specific isomorphisms of types (or domain equations) is a long standing one, as it is a crucial problem in the denotational semantics of programming languages. In the 1980s, though, some interest started to develop around the dual problem of finding the domain equations (type isomorphisms) that must hold in every model of a given language. Alternatively, one could say tha...
Subtyping Recursive Types modulo Associative Commutative Products
 Seventh International Conference on Typed Lambda Calculi and Applications (TLCA ’05
, 2003
"... We study subtyping of recursive types in the presence of associative and commutative productsthat is, subtyping modulo a restricted form of type isomorphisms. We show that this relation, which we claim is useful in practice, is a composition of the usual subtyping relation with the recently propo ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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We study subtyping of recursive types in the presence of associative and commutative productsthat is, subtyping modulo a restricted form of type isomorphisms. We show that this relation, which we claim is useful in practice, is a composition of the usual subtyping relation with the recently proposed notion of equality up to associativity and commutativity of products, and we propose an efficient decision algorithm for it. We also provide an automatic way of constructing coercions between related types.
Type Inference with Rank 1 Polymorphism for TypeDirected Compilation of ML
, 1998
"... This paper denes an extended polymorphic type system for an MLstyle programming language, and develops a sound and complete type inference algorithm. Dierent from the conventional ML type discipline, the proposed type system allows full rank 1 polymorphism, where polymorphic types can appear in oth ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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This paper denes an extended polymorphic type system for an MLstyle programming language, and develops a sound and complete type inference algorithm. Dierent from the conventional ML type discipline, the proposed type system allows full rank 1 polymorphism, where polymorphic types can appear in other types such as product types, disjoint union types and range types of function types. Because of this feature, the proposed type system signicantly reduces the valueonly restriction of polymorphism, which is currently adopted in most of MLstyle impure languages. It also serves as a basis for ecient implementation of typedirected compilation of polymorphism. The extended type system achieves more ecient type inference algorithm, and it also contributes to develop more ecient typepassing implementation of polymorphism. We show that the conventional ML polymorphism sometimes introduces exponential overhead both at compiletime elaboration and runtime typepassing execution, and that t...