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54
SATzilla: Portfoliobased Algorithm Selection for SAT
"... It has been widely observed that there is no single “dominant ” SAT solver; instead, different solvers perform best on different instances. Rather than following the traditional approach of choosing the best solver for a given class of instances, we advocate making this decision online on a perinst ..."
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Cited by 118 (18 self)
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It has been widely observed that there is no single “dominant ” SAT solver; instead, different solvers perform best on different instances. Rather than following the traditional approach of choosing the best solver for a given class of instances, we advocate making this decision online on a perinstance basis. Building on previous work, we describe SATzilla, an automated approach for constructing perinstance algorithm portfolios for SAT that use socalled empirical hardness models to choose among their constituent solvers. This approach takes as input a distribution of problem instances and a set of component solvers, and constructs a portfolio optimizing a given objective function (such as mean runtime, percent of instances solved, or score in a competition). The excellent performance of our SATzilla portfolios has been independently verified in the 2007 SAT Competition, where our SATzilla07 solvers won three gold, one silver and one bronze medal. In this article, we go well beyond SATzilla07 by making the portfolio construction scalable and completely automated, and improving it by integrating local search solvers as candidate solvers, by predicting performance score instead of runtime, and by using hierarchical hardness models that take into account different types of SAT instances. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these new techniques in extensive experimental results on data sets including instances from the most recent SAT competition. 1.
Effective Preprocessing with HyperResolution and Equality Reduction
 In SAT
, 2003
"... HypBinRes, a particular form of hyperresolution, was first employed in the SAT solver 2CLS+EQ. In 2CLS+EQ, HypBinRes and equality reduction are used at every node of a DPLL search tree, pruning much of the search tree. ..."
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Cited by 78 (2 self)
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HypBinRes, a particular form of hyperresolution, was first employed in the SAT solver 2CLS+EQ. In 2CLS+EQ, HypBinRes and equality reduction are used at every node of a DPLL search tree, pruning much of the search tree.
A Simplifier for Propositional Formulas with Many Binary Clauses
, 2001
"... Deciding whether a propositional formula in conjunctive normal form is satisfiable (SAT) is an NPcomplete problem. The problem becomes linear when the formula contains binary clauses only. Interestingly, the reduction to SAT of a number of wellknown and important problems  such as classical AI p ..."
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Cited by 61 (3 self)
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Deciding whether a propositional formula in conjunctive normal form is satisfiable (SAT) is an NPcomplete problem. The problem becomes linear when the formula contains binary clauses only. Interestingly, the reduction to SAT of a number of wellknown and important problems  such as classical AI planning and automatic test pattern generation for circuits  yields formulas containing many binary clauses. In this paper we introduce and experiment with 2SIMPLIFY, a formula simplifier targeted at such problems. 2SIMPLIFY constructs the transitive closure of the implication graph corresponding to the binary clauses in the formula and uses this graph to deduce new unit literals. The deduced literals are used to simplify the formula and update the graph, and so on, until stabilization. Finally, we use the graph to construct an equivalent, simpler set of binary clauses. Experimental evaluation of this simplifier on a number of benchmark formulas produced by encoding AI planning problems prove 2SIMPLIFY to be a useful tool in many circumstances.
Satisfiability Solvers
, 2008
"... The past few years have seen an enormous progress in the performance of Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solvers. Despite the worstcase exponential run time of all known algorithms, satisfiability solvers are increasingly leaving their mark as a generalpurpose tool in areas as diverse as software and h ..."
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Cited by 37 (0 self)
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The past few years have seen an enormous progress in the performance of Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solvers. Despite the worstcase exponential run time of all known algorithms, satisfiability solvers are increasingly leaving their mark as a generalpurpose tool in areas as diverse as software and hardware verification [29–31, 228], automatic test pattern generation [138, 221], planning [129, 197], scheduling [103], and even challenging problems from algebra [238]. Annual SAT competitions have led to the development of dozens of clever implementations of such solvers [e.g. 13,
Blocked Clause Elimination
, 2010
"... Boolean satisfiability (SAT) and its extensions are becoming a core technology for the analysis of systems. The SATbased approach divides into three steps: encoding, preprocessing, and search. It is often argued that by encoding arbitrary Boolean formulas in conjunctive normal form (CNF), structur ..."
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Cited by 27 (12 self)
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Boolean satisfiability (SAT) and its extensions are becoming a core technology for the analysis of systems. The SATbased approach divides into three steps: encoding, preprocessing, and search. It is often argued that by encoding arbitrary Boolean formulas in conjunctive normal form (CNF), structural properties of the original problem are not reflected in the CNF. This should result in the fact that CNFlevel preprocessing and SAT solver techniques have an inherent disadvantagecompared to related techniques applicable on the level of more structural SAT instance representations such as Boolean circuits. In this work we study the effect of a CNFlevel simplification technique called blocked clause elimination (BCE). We show that BCE is surprisingly effective both in theory and in practice on CNFs resulting from a standard CNF encoding for circuits: without explicit knowledge of the underlying circuit structure, it achieves the same level of simplification as a combination of circuitlevel simplifications and previously suggested polaritybased CNF encodings. Experimentally, we show that by applying BCE in preprocessing, further formula reduction and faster solving can be achieved, giving promise for applying BCE to speed up solvers.
Inprocessing Rules
, 2012
"... Decision procedures for Boolean satisfiability (SAT), especially modern conflictdriven clause learning (CDCL) solvers, act routinely as core solving engines in various realworld applications. Preprocessing, i.e., applying formula rewriting/simplification rules to the input formula before the actu ..."
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Cited by 23 (12 self)
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Decision procedures for Boolean satisfiability (SAT), especially modern conflictdriven clause learning (CDCL) solvers, act routinely as core solving engines in various realworld applications. Preprocessing, i.e., applying formula rewriting/simplification rules to the input formula before the actual search for satisfiability, has become an essential part of the SAT solving tool chain. Further, some of the strongest SAT solvers today add more reasoning to search by interleaving formula simplification and CDCL search. Such inprocessing SAT solvers witness the fact that implementing additional deduction rules in CDCL solvers leverages the efficiency of stateoftheart SAT solving further. In this paper we establish formal underpinnings of inprocessing SAT solving via an abstract inprocessing framework that covers a wide range of modern SAT solving techniques.
The SAT2002 Competition
, 2002
"... SAT Competition 2002 held in MarchMay 2002 in conjunction with SAT 2002 (the Fifth International Symposium on the Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing). About 30 solvers and 2300 benchmarks took part in the competition, which required more than 2 CPU years to complete the evaluation ..."
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Cited by 22 (2 self)
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SAT Competition 2002 held in MarchMay 2002 in conjunction with SAT 2002 (the Fifth International Symposium on the Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing). About 30 solvers and 2300 benchmarks took part in the competition, which required more than 2 CPU years to complete the evaluation. In this report
Binary clause reasoning in QBF
 In Proc. of SAT
, 2006
"... Abstract. Binary clause reasoning has found some successful applications in SAT, and it is natural to investigate its use in various extensions of SAT. In this paper we investigate the use of binary clause reasoning in the context of solving Quantified Boolean Formulas (QBF). We develop a DPLL based ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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Abstract. Binary clause reasoning has found some successful applications in SAT, and it is natural to investigate its use in various extensions of SAT. In this paper we investigate the use of binary clause reasoning in the context of solving Quantified Boolean Formulas (QBF). We develop a DPLL based QBF solver that employs extended binary clause reasoning (hyperbinary resolution) to infer new binary clauses both before and during search. These binary clauses are used to discover additional forced literals, as well as to perform equality reduction. Both of these transformations simplify the theory by removing one of its variables. When applied during DPLL search this stronger inference can offer significant decreases in the size of the search tree, but it can also be costly to apply. We are able to show empirically that despite the extra costs, binary clause reasoning can improve our ability to solve QBF. 1
ProbingBased Preprocessing Techniques for Propositional Satisfiability
 In Proc. the IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI’03
, 2003
"... Preprocessing is an often used approach for solving hard instances of propositional satisfiability (SAT). Preprocessing can be used for reducing the number of variables and for drastically modifying the set of clauses, either by eliminating irrelevant clauses or by inferring new clauses. Over the ye ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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Preprocessing is an often used approach for solving hard instances of propositional satisfiability (SAT). Preprocessing can be used for reducing the number of variables and for drastically modifying the set of clauses, either by eliminating irrelevant clauses or by inferring new clauses. Over the years, a large number of formula manipulation techniques has been proposed, that in some situations have allowed solving instances not otherwise solvable with stateof theart SAT solvers. This paper proposes probingbased preprocessing, an integrated approach for preprocessing propositional formulas, that for the first time integrates in a single algorithm most of the existing formula manipulation techniques. Moreover, the new unified framework can be used to develop new techniques. Preliminary experimental results illustrate that probingbased preprocessing can be effectively used as a preprocessing tool in stateoftheart SAT solvers.
Cube and Conquer: Guiding CDCL SAT solvers by lookaheads
 In Proc. HVC 2011
, 2012
"... Abstract. Satisfiability (SAT) is considered as one of the most important core technologies in formal verification and related areas. Even though there is steady progress in improving practical SATsolving, there are limits on scalability of SATsolvers. We address this issue and present a new approac ..."
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Cited by 15 (9 self)
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Abstract. Satisfiability (SAT) is considered as one of the most important core technologies in formal verification and related areas. Even though there is steady progress in improving practical SATsolving, there are limits on scalability of SATsolvers. We address this issue and present a new approach, called cubeandconquer, targeted at reducing solving time on hard instances. This twophase approach partitions a problem into many thousands (or millions) of cubes using lookahead techniques. Afterwards, a conflictdriven solver tackles the problem, using the cubes to guide the search. On several hard competition benchmarks, our hybrid approach outperforms both lookahead and conflictdriven solvers. Moreover, because cubeandconquer is natural to parallelize, it is a competitive alternative for solving SAT problems in parallel. 1