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63
Utility Representation of an Incomplete Preference Relation
 Journal of Economic Theory
, 2002
"... We consider the problem of representing a (possibly) incomplete preference relation by means of a vectorvalued utility function. Continuous and semicontinuous representation results are reported in the case of preference relations that are, in a sense, not “too incomplete. ” These results generaliz ..."
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Cited by 38 (4 self)
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We consider the problem of representing a (possibly) incomplete preference relation by means of a vectorvalued utility function. Continuous and semicontinuous representation results are reported in the case of preference relations that are, in a sense, not “too incomplete. ” These results generalize some of the classical utility representation theorems of the theory of individual choice, and paves the way towards developing a consumer theory that realistically allows individuals to exhibit some “indecisiveness ” on occasion.
Higher Order Logic
 In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming
, 1994
"... Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Definin ..."
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Cited by 19 (0 self)
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Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Defining data types : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.4 Describing processes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.5 Expressing convergence using second order validity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 2.6 Truth definitions: the analytical hierarchy : : : : : : : : 10 2.7 Inductive definitions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 3 Canonical semantics of higher order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 3.1 Tarskian semantics of second order logic : : : : : : : : : 15 3.2 Function and re
Quantum Mereotopology
 Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence
, 2000
"... While mereotopology  the theory of boundaries, contact and separation built up on a mereological foundation  has found fruitful applications in the realm of qualitative spatial reasoning, it faces problems when its methods are extended to deal with those kinds of spatial and nonspatial reas ..."
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Cited by 13 (5 self)
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While mereotopology  the theory of boundaries, contact and separation built up on a mereological foundation  has found fruitful applications in the realm of qualitative spatial reasoning, it faces problems when its methods are extended to deal with those kinds of spatial and nonspatial reasoning which involve a factor of granularity. This is because granularity cannot easily be represented within a mereologybased framework. We sketch how this problem can be solved by means of a theory of coarsegrained partitions, drawing on methods developed for the manipulation of partitions in the spatial realm and applying these to a range of partitions of nonspatial sorts. We then show how these same methods can be extended to apply to finite sequences of partitions evolving over time, or to what we shall call coarse and finegrained histories. Keywords: mereotopology, granularity, ontology, partitions, histories 1. Introduction As a result of a series of important contribut...
Types in logic and mathematics before 1940
 Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 2002
"... Abstract. In this article, we study the prehistory of type theory up to 1910 and its development between Russell and Whitehead’s Principia Mathematica ([71], 1910–1912) and Church’s simply typed λcalculus of 1940. We first argue that the concept of types has always been present in mathematics, thou ..."
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Cited by 11 (6 self)
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Abstract. In this article, we study the prehistory of type theory up to 1910 and its development between Russell and Whitehead’s Principia Mathematica ([71], 1910–1912) and Church’s simply typed λcalculus of 1940. We first argue that the concept of types has always been present in mathematics, though nobody was incorporating them explicitly as such, before the end of the 19th century. Then we proceed by describing how the logical paradoxes entered the formal systems of Frege, Cantor and Peano concentrating on Frege’s Grundgesetze der Arithmetik for which Russell applied his famous paradox 1 and this led him to introduce the first theory of types, the Ramified Type Theory (rtt). We present rtt formally using the modern notation for type theory and we discuss how Ramsey, Hilbert and Ackermann removed the orders from rtt leading to the simple theory of types stt. We present stt and Church’s own simply typed λcalculus (λ→C 2) and we finish by comparing rtt, stt and λ→C. §1. Introduction. Nowadays, type theory has many applications and is used in many different disciplines. Even within logic and mathematics, there are many different type systems. They serve several purposes, and are formulated in various ways. But, before 1903 when Russell first introduced
Algorithms for ordinal arithmetic
 In 19th International Conference on Automated Deduction (CADE
, 2003
"... Abstract. Proofs of termination are essential for establishing the correct behavior of computing systems. There are various ways of establishing termination, but the most general involves the use of ordinals. An example of a theorem proving system in which ordinals are used to prove termination is A ..."
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Cited by 11 (5 self)
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Abstract. Proofs of termination are essential for establishing the correct behavior of computing systems. There are various ways of establishing termination, but the most general involves the use of ordinals. An example of a theorem proving system in which ordinals are used to prove termination is ACL2. In ACL2, every function defined must be shown to terminate using the ordinals up to ɛ0. We use a compact notation for the ordinals up to ɛ0 (exponentially more succinct than the one used by ACL2) and define efficient algorithms for ordinal addition, subtraction, multiplication, and exponentiation. In this paper we describe our notation and algorithms, prove their correctness, and analyze their complexity. 1
Ordinal arithmetic in ACL2
 In ACL2 Workshop 2003
, 2003
"... Abstract. Ordinals form the basis for termination proofs in ACL2. Currently, ACL2 uses a rather inefficient representation for the ordinals up to ɛ0 and provides limited support for reasoning about them. We present algorithms for ordinal arithmetic on an exponentially more compact representation tha ..."
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Cited by 9 (6 self)
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Abstract. Ordinals form the basis for termination proofs in ACL2. Currently, ACL2 uses a rather inefficient representation for the ordinals up to ɛ0 and provides limited support for reasoning about them. We present algorithms for ordinal arithmetic on an exponentially more compact representation than the one used by ACL2. The algorithms have been implemented and numerous properties of the arithmetic operators have been mechanically verified, thereby greatly extending ACL2’s ability to reason about the ordinals. We describe how to use the libraries containing these results, which are currently distributed with ACL2 version 2.7. 1
Measurement: The theory of numerical assignments
 Psychol Bull
, 1986
"... In this article we review some generalizations of classical theories of measurement for concatenation (e.g., mass or length) and conjoint structures (e.g., momentum of massvelocity pairs or loudness of intensityfrequency pairs). The earlier results on additive representations are briefly surveyed. ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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In this article we review some generalizations of classical theories of measurement for concatenation (e.g., mass or length) and conjoint structures (e.g., momentum of massvelocity pairs or loudness of intensityfrequency pairs). The earlier results on additive representations are briefly surveyed. Generalizations to nonadditive structures are outlined, and their more complex uniqueness results are described. The latter leads to a definition of scale type in terms of the symmetries (automorphisms) of the underlying qualitative structure. The major result is that for any measurement onto the real numbers, only three possible scale types exist that are both rich in symmetries but not too redundant: ratio, interval, and another lying between them. The possible numerical representations for concatenation structures corresponding to these scale types are completely described. The interval scale case leads to a generalization of subjective expectedutility theory that copes with some empirical violations of the classical theory. Partial attempts to axiomatize concatenation structures of these three scale types are described. Such structures are of interest because they make clear that there is a rich class of nonadditive concatenation and conjoint structures with representations of the same scale types as those used in physics. Many scientists and philosophers are well aware of what the
Efficient execution in an automated reasoning environment
 Journal of Functional Programming
, 2006
"... Abstract We describe a method to permit the user of a mathematical logic to write elegant logical definitions while allowing sound and efficient execution. We focus on the ACL2 logic and automated reasoning environment. ACL2 is used by industrial researchers to describe microprocessor designs and ot ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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Abstract We describe a method to permit the user of a mathematical logic to write elegant logical definitions while allowing sound and efficient execution. We focus on the ACL2 logic and automated reasoning environment. ACL2 is used by industrial researchers to describe microprocessor designs and other complicated digital systems. Properties of the designs can be formally established with the theorem prover. But because ACL2 is also a functional programming language, the formal models can be executed as simulation engines. We implement features that afford these dual applications, namely formal proof and execution on industrial test suites. In particular, the features allow the user to install, in a logically sound way, alternative executable counterparts for logicallydefined functions. These alternatives are often much more efficient than the logically equivalent terms they replace. We discuss several applications of these features. 1 Introduction This paper is about a way to permit the functional programmer to prove efficientprograms correct. The idea is to allow the provision of two definitions of the program: an elegant definition that supports effective reasoning by a mechanizedtheorem prover, and an efficient definition for evaluation. A bridge of this sort,
Set Theory and Physics
 FOUNDATIONS OF PHYSICS, VOL. 25, NO. 11
, 1995
"... Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) hr chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of soli ..."
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Cited by 8 (7 self)
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Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) hr chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid threedimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (ChurchTurhrg thesis) related to the possible "solution of supertasks," and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvatages for" physical applications are discussed: Cantorian "naive" (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism, hr the arrthor's ophrion, an attitude of "suspended attention" (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same thne, physicists shouM be open to "bizarre" or "mindboggling" new formalisms, which treed not be operationalizable or testable at the thne of their " creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.