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Geometric AdHoc Routing: Of Theory and Practice
, 2003
"... All too often a seemingly insurmountable divide between theory and practice can be witnessed. In this paper we try to contribute to narrowing this gap in the field of adhoc routing. In particular we consider two aspects: We propose a new geometric routing algorithm which is outstandingly e#cient on ..."
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Cited by 236 (11 self)
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All too often a seemingly insurmountable divide between theory and practice can be witnessed. In this paper we try to contribute to narrowing this gap in the field of adhoc routing. In particular we consider two aspects: We propose a new geometric routing algorithm which is outstandingly e#cient on practical averagecase networks, however is also in theory asymptotically worstcase optimal. On the other hand we are able to drop the formerly necessary assumption that the distance between network nodes may not fall below a constant value, an assumption that cannot be maintained for practical networks. Abandoning this assumption we identify from a theoretical point of view two fundamentamentally di#erent classes of cost metrics for routing in adhoc networks.
WorstCase Optimal and AverageCase Efficient Geometric AdHoc Routing
, 2003
"... In this paper we present GOAFR, a new geometric adhoc routing algorithm combining greedy and face routing. We evaluate this algorithm by both rigorous analysis and comprehensive simulation. GOAFR is the first adhoc algorithm to be both asymptotically optimal and averagecase e#cient. For our simul ..."
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Cited by 180 (13 self)
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In this paper we present GOAFR, a new geometric adhoc routing algorithm combining greedy and face routing. We evaluate this algorithm by both rigorous analysis and comprehensive simulation. GOAFR is the first adhoc algorithm to be both asymptotically optimal and averagecase e#cient. For our simulations we identify a network density range critical for any routing algorithm. We study a dozen of routing algorithms and show that GOAFR outperforms other prominent algorithms, such as GPSR or AFR.
Distributed Construction of a Planar Spanner and Routing for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
, 2002
"... Several localized routing protocols [1] guarantee the delivery of the packets when the underlying network topology is the Delaunay triangulation of all wireless nodes. However, it is expensive to construct the Delaunay triangulation in a distributed manner. Given a set of wireless nodes, we more acc ..."
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Cited by 111 (22 self)
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Several localized routing protocols [1] guarantee the delivery of the packets when the underlying network topology is the Delaunay triangulation of all wireless nodes. However, it is expensive to construct the Delaunay triangulation in a distributed manner. Given a set of wireless nodes, we more accurately model the network as a unitdisk graph UDG , in which a link in between two nodes exist only if the distance in between them is at most the maximum transmission range.
AdHoc Networks Beyond Unit Disk Graphs
, 2003
"... In this paper we study a model for adhoc networks close enough to reality as to represent existing networks, being at the same time concise enough to promote strong theoretical results. The Quasi Unit Disk Graph model contains all edges shorter than a parameter d between 0 and 1 and no edges longer ..."
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Cited by 101 (10 self)
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In this paper we study a model for adhoc networks close enough to reality as to represent existing networks, being at the same time concise enough to promote strong theoretical results. The Quasi Unit Disk Graph model contains all edges shorter than a parameter d between 0 and 1 and no edges longer than 1. We show that  in comparison to the cost known on Unit Disk Graphs  the complexity results in this model contain the additional factor 1/d². We prove that in Quasi Unit Disk Graphs flooding is an asymptotically messageoptimal routing technique, provide a geometric routing algorithm being more efficient above all in dense networks, and show that classic geometric routing is possible with the same performance guarantees as for Unit Disk Graphs if d 1/ # 2.
Asymptotically Optimal Geometric Mobile AdHoc Routing
, 2002
"... In this paper we present AFR, a new geometric mobile adhoc routing algorithm. The algorithm is completely distributed; nodes need to communicate only with direct neighbors in their transmission range. We show that if a best route has cost c, AFR finds a route and terminates with cost O(c ) in the ..."
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Cited by 99 (12 self)
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In this paper we present AFR, a new geometric mobile adhoc routing algorithm. The algorithm is completely distributed; nodes need to communicate only with direct neighbors in their transmission range. We show that if a best route has cost c, AFR finds a route and terminates with cost O(c ) in the worst case. AFR is the first algorithm with cost bounded by a function of the optimal route. We also give a tight lower bound by showing that any geometric routing algorithm has worstcase ). Thus AFR is asymptotically optimal. We give a nongeometric algorithm that also matches the lower bound, but needs some memory at each node. This establishes an intriguing tradeo# between geometry and memory.
Internal Node and Shortcut Based Routing With Guaranteed Delivery in Wireless Networks
 Cluster Computing
, 2001
"... Several distributed routing algorithms for wireless networks were described recently, based on location information of nodes available via Global Positioning System (GPS). In greedy routing algorithm sender or node S currently holding the message m forwards m to one of its neighbors that is the clos ..."
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Cited by 77 (15 self)
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Several distributed routing algorithms for wireless networks were described recently, based on location information of nodes available via Global Positioning System (GPS). In greedy routing algorithm sender or node S currently holding the message m forwards m to one of its neighbors that is the closest to destination. The algorithm fails if S does not have any neighbor that is closer to destination than S. FACE algorithm guarantees the delivery of m if the network, modeled by unit graph, is connected. GFG algorithm combines greedy and FACE algorithms. Greedy algorithm is applied as long as possible, until delivery or a failure. In case of failure, the algorithm switches to FACE algorithm until a node closer to destination than last failure node is found, at which point greedy algorithm is applied again. In this paper we further improve the performance of GFG algorithm, by reducing its average hop count. First we improve the FACE algorithm by adding a soonerback procedure for earlier escape from FACE mode. Then we perform a shortcut procedure at each forwarding node S. Node S uses the local information available to calculate as many hops as possible and forwards the packet to the last known hop directly instead of forwarding it to the next hop. The second improvement is based on the concept of dominating sets. The network of internal nodes defines a connected dominating set, and each node must be either internal or directly connected to an internal node. We apply several existing definitions of internal nodes, namely the concepts of intermediate, intergateway and gateway nodes. We propose to run GFG routing, enhanced by shortcut procedure, on the dominating set, except possibly the first and last hops. We obtained localized routing algorithm that guarantees delivery an...
Robust PositionBased Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Unstable Transmission Ranges (Extended Abstract)
"... Several papers showed how to perform routing in ad hoc wireless networks based on the positions of the mobile hosts. However, all these protocols are likely to fail if the transmission ranges of the mobile hosts vary due to natural or manmade obstacles or weather conditions. These protocols may fai ..."
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Cited by 74 (4 self)
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Several papers showed how to perform routing in ad hoc wireless networks based on the positions of the mobile hosts. However, all these protocols are likely to fail if the transmission ranges of the mobile hosts vary due to natural or manmade obstacles or weather conditions. These protocols may fail because in routing either some connections are not considered which eectively results in disconnecting the network, or the use of some connections causes livelocks. In this paper, we describe a robust routing protocol that tolerates up to roughly 40% of variation in the transmission ranges of the mobile hosts. More precisely, our protocol guarantees message delivery in a connected adhoc network whenever the ratio of the maximum transmission range to the minimum transmission range is at most 2.
Localized construction of bounded degree and planar spanner for wireless ad hoc networks
 In DIALMPOMC
, 2003
"... We propose a novel localized algorithm that constructs a bounded degree and planar spanner for wireless ad hoc networks modeled by unit disk graph (UDG). Every node only has to know its 2hop neighbors to find the edges in this new structure. Our method applies the Yao structure on the local Delauna ..."
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Cited by 69 (8 self)
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We propose a novel localized algorithm that constructs a bounded degree and planar spanner for wireless ad hoc networks modeled by unit disk graph (UDG). Every node only has to know its 2hop neighbors to find the edges in this new structure. Our method applies the Yao structure on the local Delaunay graph [21] in an ordering that are computed locally. This new structure has the following attractive properties: (1) it is a planar graph; (2) its node degree is bounded from above by a positive constant 19 + ⌈ 2π α ⌉; (3) it is a tspanner (given any two nodes u and v, there is a path connecting them in the structure such that its length is no more than t ≤ max { π α,πsin 2 2 +1}·Cdel times of the shortest path in UDG); (4) it can be constructed locally and is easy to maintain when the nodes move around; (5) moreover, we show that the total communication cost is O(n), where n is the number of wireless nodes, and the computation cost of each node is at most O(d log d), where d is its 2hop neighbors in the original unit disk graph. Here Cdel is the spanning ratio of the Delaunay triangulation, which is at most 4 √ 3 9 π. And the adjustable parameter α satisfies 0 <α<π/3. In addition, experiments are conducted to show this topology is efficient in practice, compared with other wellknown topologies used in wireless ad hoc networks. Previously, only centralized method [5] of constructing bounded degree planar spanner is known, with degree bound 27 and spanning ratio t ≃ 10.02. The distributed implementation of their centralized method takes O(n 2) communications in the worst case. No localized methods were known previously for constructing bounded degree planar spanner.
BLR: BeaconLess Routing Algorithm for Mobile AdHoc Networks
 Elsevier’s Computer Communications Journal (Special Issue
, 2003
"... Routing of packets in a mobile adhoc network with a large number... this paper is a routing protocol that makes use of location information to reduce routing overhead. However, unlike other positionbased routing protocols, BLR does not require nodes to periodically broadcast Hellomessages (called ..."
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Cited by 63 (8 self)
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Routing of packets in a mobile adhoc network with a large number... this paper is a routing protocol that makes use of location information to reduce routing overhead. However, unlike other positionbased routing protocols, BLR does not require nodes to periodically broadcast Hellomessages (called beaconing), and thus avoids drawbacks such as extensive use of scarce batterypower, interferences with regular data transmission, and performance degradation. BLR selects a forwarding node in a distributed manner among all its neighboring nodes with having information neither about their positions nor even about their existence. Data packets are broadcasted and the protocol takes care that just one of the receiving nodes forwards the packet. Optimized forwarding is achieved by applying a concept of Dynamic Forwarding Delay (DFD). Consequently, the node which computes the shortest forwarding delay relays the packet first. This forwarding is detected by the other nodes and suppresses them to relay the same packet any further. Analytical results and simulation experiments indicate that BLR provides efficient and robust routing in highly dynamic mobile adhoc networks.
Localized Delaunay Triangulation with Application in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
, 2003
"... Several localized routing protocols guarantee the delivery of the packets when the underlying network topology is a planar graph. Typically, relative neighborhood graph (RNG) or Gabriel graph (GG) is used as such planar structure. However, it is wellknown that the spanning ratios of these two grap ..."
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Cited by 49 (8 self)
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Several localized routing protocols guarantee the delivery of the packets when the underlying network topology is a planar graph. Typically, relative neighborhood graph (RNG) or Gabriel graph (GG) is used as such planar structure. However, it is wellknown that the spanning ratios of these two graphs are not bounded by any constant (even for uniform randomly distributed points). Bose et al. [11] recently developed a localized routing protocol that guarantees that the distance traveled by the packets is within a constant factor of the minimum if Delaunay triangulation of all wireless nodes is used, in addition, to guarantee the delivery of the packets. However, it is expensive to construct the Delaunay triangulation in a distributed manner. Given a set of wireless nodes, we model the network as a unitdisk graph (UDG), in which a link uv exists only if the distance kuvk is at most the maximum transmission range. In this paper, we present a novel localized networking protocol that constructs a planar 2.5spanner of UDG, called the localized Delaunay triangulation (LDEL), as network topology. It contains all edges that are both in the unitdisk graph and the Delaunay triangulation of all nodes. The total communication cost of our networking protocol is Oðn log nÞ bits, which is within a constant factor of the optimum to construct any structure in a distributed manner. Our experiments show that the delivery rates of some of the existing localized routing protocols are increased when localized Delaunay triangulation is used instead of several previously proposed topologies. Our simulations also show that the traveled distance of the packets is significantly less when the FACE routing algorithm is applied on LDEL, rather than applied on GG.