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77
Geometric AdHoc Routing: Of Theory and Practice
, 2003
"... All too often a seemingly insurmountable divide between theory and practice can be witnessed. In this paper we try to contribute to narrowing this gap in the field of adhoc routing. In particular we consider two aspects: We propose a new geometric routing algorithm which is outstandingly e#cient on ..."
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Cited by 236 (11 self)
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All too often a seemingly insurmountable divide between theory and practice can be witnessed. In this paper we try to contribute to narrowing this gap in the field of adhoc routing. In particular we consider two aspects: We propose a new geometric routing algorithm which is outstandingly e#cient on practical averagecase networks, however is also in theory asymptotically worstcase optimal. On the other hand we are able to drop the formerly necessary assumption that the distance between network nodes may not fall below a constant value, an assumption that cannot be maintained for practical networks. Abandoning this assumption we identify from a theoretical point of view two fundamentamentally di#erent classes of cost metrics for routing in adhoc networks.
WorstCase Optimal and AverageCase Efficient Geometric AdHoc Routing
, 2003
"... In this paper we present GOAFR, a new geometric adhoc routing algorithm combining greedy and face routing. We evaluate this algorithm by both rigorous analysis and comprehensive simulation. GOAFR is the first adhoc algorithm to be both asymptotically optimal and averagecase e#cient. For our simul ..."
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Cited by 180 (13 self)
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In this paper we present GOAFR, a new geometric adhoc routing algorithm combining greedy and face routing. We evaluate this algorithm by both rigorous analysis and comprehensive simulation. GOAFR is the first adhoc algorithm to be both asymptotically optimal and averagecase e#cient. For our simulations we identify a network density range critical for any routing algorithm. We study a dozen of routing algorithms and show that GOAFR outperforms other prominent algorithms, such as GPSR or AFR.
Geometric Spanner for Routing in Mobile Networks
, 2001
"... Abstract—We propose a new routing graph, the restricted Delaunay graph (RDG), for mobile ad hoc networks. Combined with a node clustering algorithm, the RDG can be used as an underlying graph for geographic routing protocols. This graph has the following attractive properties: 1) it is planar; 2) be ..."
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Cited by 153 (19 self)
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Abstract—We propose a new routing graph, the restricted Delaunay graph (RDG), for mobile ad hoc networks. Combined with a node clustering algorithm, the RDG can be used as an underlying graph for geographic routing protocols. This graph has the following attractive properties: 1) it is planar; 2) between any two graph nodes there exists a path whose length, whether measured in terms of topological or Euclidean distance, is only a constant times the minimum length possible; and 3) the graph can be maintained efficiently in a distributed manner when the nodes move around. Furthermore, each node only needs constant time to make routing decisions. We show by simulation that the RDG outperforms previously proposed routing graphs in the context of the Greedy perimeter stateless routing (GPSR) protocol. Finally, we investigate theoretical bounds on the quality of paths discovered using GPSR. Index Terms—Geographical routing, spanners, wireless ad hoc networks. I.
AdHoc Networks Beyond Unit Disk Graphs
, 2003
"... In this paper we study a model for adhoc networks close enough to reality as to represent existing networks, being at the same time concise enough to promote strong theoretical results. The Quasi Unit Disk Graph model contains all edges shorter than a parameter d between 0 and 1 and no edges longer ..."
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Cited by 101 (10 self)
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In this paper we study a model for adhoc networks close enough to reality as to represent existing networks, being at the same time concise enough to promote strong theoretical results. The Quasi Unit Disk Graph model contains all edges shorter than a parameter d between 0 and 1 and no edges longer than 1. We show that  in comparison to the cost known on Unit Disk Graphs  the complexity results in this model contain the additional factor 1/d². We prove that in Quasi Unit Disk Graphs flooding is an asymptotically messageoptimal routing technique, provide a geometric routing algorithm being more efficient above all in dense networks, and show that classic geometric routing is possible with the same performance guarantees as for Unit Disk Graphs if d 1/ # 2.
Locating and bypassing routing holes in sensor networks
, 2004
"... Abstract — Many algorithms for routing in sensor networks exploit greedy forwarding strategies to get packets to their destinations. In this paper we study a fundamental difficulty such strategies face: the “local minimum phenomena ” that can cause packets to get stuck. We give a definition of stuck ..."
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Cited by 101 (11 self)
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Abstract — Many algorithms for routing in sensor networks exploit greedy forwarding strategies to get packets to their destinations. In this paper we study a fundamental difficulty such strategies face: the “local minimum phenomena ” that can cause packets to get stuck. We give a definition of stuck nodes where packets may get stuck in greedy multihop forwarding, and develop a local rule, the TENT rule, for each node in the network to test whether a packet can get stuck at that node. To help the packets get out of stuck nodes, we describe a distributed algorithm, BOUNDHOLE, to build routes around holes, which are connected regions of the network with boundaries consisting of all the stuck nodes. We show that these holesurrounding routes can be used in many applications such as geographic routing, path migration, information storage mechanisms and identification of regions of interest.
Localized construction of bounded degree and planar spanner for wireless ad hoc networks
 In DIALMPOMC
, 2003
"... We propose a novel localized algorithm that constructs a bounded degree and planar spanner for wireless ad hoc networks modeled by unit disk graph (UDG). Every node only has to know its 2hop neighbors to find the edges in this new structure. Our method applies the Yao structure on the local Delauna ..."
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Cited by 69 (8 self)
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We propose a novel localized algorithm that constructs a bounded degree and planar spanner for wireless ad hoc networks modeled by unit disk graph (UDG). Every node only has to know its 2hop neighbors to find the edges in this new structure. Our method applies the Yao structure on the local Delaunay graph [21] in an ordering that are computed locally. This new structure has the following attractive properties: (1) it is a planar graph; (2) its node degree is bounded from above by a positive constant 19 + ⌈ 2π α ⌉; (3) it is a tspanner (given any two nodes u and v, there is a path connecting them in the structure such that its length is no more than t ≤ max { π α,πsin 2 2 +1}·Cdel times of the shortest path in UDG); (4) it can be constructed locally and is easy to maintain when the nodes move around; (5) moreover, we show that the total communication cost is O(n), where n is the number of wireless nodes, and the computation cost of each node is at most O(d log d), where d is its 2hop neighbors in the original unit disk graph. Here Cdel is the spanning ratio of the Delaunay triangulation, which is at most 4 √ 3 9 π. And the adjustable parameter α satisfies 0 <α<π/3. In addition, experiments are conducted to show this topology is efficient in practice, compared with other wellknown topologies used in wireless ad hoc networks. Previously, only centralized method [5] of constructing bounded degree planar spanner is known, with degree bound 27 and spanning ratio t ≃ 10.02. The distributed implementation of their centralized method takes O(n 2) communications in the worst case. No localized methods were known previously for constructing bounded degree planar spanner.
BLR: BeaconLess Routing Algorithm for Mobile AdHoc Networks
 Elsevier’s Computer Communications Journal (Special Issue
, 2003
"... Routing of packets in a mobile adhoc network with a large number... this paper is a routing protocol that makes use of location information to reduce routing overhead. However, unlike other positionbased routing protocols, BLR does not require nodes to periodically broadcast Hellomessages (called ..."
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Cited by 63 (8 self)
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Routing of packets in a mobile adhoc network with a large number... this paper is a routing protocol that makes use of location information to reduce routing overhead. However, unlike other positionbased routing protocols, BLR does not require nodes to periodically broadcast Hellomessages (called beaconing), and thus avoids drawbacks such as extensive use of scarce batterypower, interferences with regular data transmission, and performance degradation. BLR selects a forwarding node in a distributed manner among all its neighboring nodes with having information neither about their positions nor even about their existence. Data packets are broadcasted and the protocol takes care that just one of the receiving nodes forwards the packet. Optimized forwarding is achieved by applying a concept of Dynamic Forwarding Delay (DFD). Consequently, the node which computes the shortest forwarding delay relays the packet first. This forwarding is detected by the other nodes and suppresses them to relay the same packet any further. Analytical results and simulation experiments indicate that BLR provides efficient and robust routing in highly dynamic mobile adhoc networks.
LLS: a Locality Aware Location Service for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
 In Proceedings of the DIALMPOMC Joint Workshop on Foundations of Mobile Computing (DIALMPOMC 2004
, 2004
"... Coping with mobility and dynamism is one of the biggest challenges in ad hoc networks. An essential requirement for such networks is a service that can establish communication sessions between mobile nodes whose location is unknown. A location service for ad hoc networks is a distributed algorithm t ..."
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Cited by 54 (1 self)
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Coping with mobility and dynamism is one of the biggest challenges in ad hoc networks. An essential requirement for such networks is a service that can establish communication sessions between mobile nodes whose location is unknown. A location service for ad hoc networks is a distributed algorithm that allows any source node s to know the location of any destination node t, simply by knowing t's network identifier.
S4: Small State and Small Stretch Routing Protocol for Large Wireless Sensor Networks
 IN PROC. OF THE USENIX NSDI CONF
, 2007
"... Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks must address the challenges of reliable packet delivery at increasingly large scale and highly constrained node resources. Attempts to limit node state can result in undesirable worstcase routing performance, as measured by stretch, which is the ratio ..."
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Cited by 51 (1 self)
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Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks must address the challenges of reliable packet delivery at increasingly large scale and highly constrained node resources. Attempts to limit node state can result in undesirable worstcase routing performance, as measured by stretch, which is the ratio of the hop count of the selected path to that of the optimal path. We present a new routing protocol, Small State and Small Stretch (S4),which jointly minimizes the state and stretch. S4 uses a combination of beacon distancevector based global routing state and scoped distancevector based local routing state to achieve a worstcase stretch of 3 using O ( √ N) routing state per node in an Nnode network. Its average routing stretch is close to 1. S4 further incorporates local failure recovery to achieve resilience to dynamic topology changes. We use multiple simulation environments to assess performance claims at scale, and use experiments in a 42node wireless sensor network testbed to evaluate performance under realistic RF and failure dynamics. The results show that S4 achieves scalability, efficiency, and resilience in a wide range of scenarios.
Path Vector Face Routing: Geographic Routing with Local Face Information
 In Proceedings of ICNP 2005
, 2004
"... this paper, we argue that the above notion of locality is unduly restrictive and propose a new Flocality model, where the set of nodes known to v is the set F (v) of nodes with whom v shares a face in the planarized network graph (See Section 2) ..."
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Cited by 46 (4 self)
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this paper, we argue that the above notion of locality is unduly restrictive and propose a new Flocality model, where the set of nodes known to v is the set F (v) of nodes with whom v shares a face in the planarized network graph (See Section 2)