Results 1  10
of
405
Fast approximate energy minimization via graph cuts
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2001
"... In this paper we address the problem of minimizing a large class of energy functions that occur in early vision. The major restriction is that the energy function’s smoothness term must only involve pairs of pixels. We propose two algorithms that use graph cuts to compute a local minimum even when v ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1962 (61 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
In this paper we address the problem of minimizing a large class of energy functions that occur in early vision. The major restriction is that the energy function’s smoothness term must only involve pairs of pixels. We propose two algorithms that use graph cuts to compute a local minimum even when very large moves are allowed. The first move we consider is an αβswap: for a pair of labels α, β, this move exchanges the labels between an arbitrary set of pixels labeled α and another arbitrary set labeled β. Our first algorithm generates a labeling such that there is no swap move that decreases the energy. The second move we consider is an αexpansion: for a label α, this move assigns an arbitrary set of pixels the label α. Our second
An Experimental Comparison of MinCut/MaxFlow Algorithms for Energy Minimization in Vision
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2001
"... After [10, 15, 12, 2, 4] minimum cut/maximum flow algorithms on graphs emerged as an increasingly useful tool for exact or approximate energy minimization in lowlevel vision. The combinatorial optimization literature provides many mincut/maxflow algorithms with different polynomial time compl ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1185 (52 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
After [10, 15, 12, 2, 4] minimum cut/maximum flow algorithms on graphs emerged as an increasingly useful tool for exact or approximate energy minimization in lowlevel vision. The combinatorial optimization literature provides many mincut/maxflow algorithms with different polynomial time complexity. Their practical efficiency, however, has to date been studied mainly outside the scope of computer vision. The goal of this paper
What energy functions can be minimized via graph cuts?
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2004
"... In the last few years, several new algorithms based on graph cuts have been developed to solve energy minimization problems in computer vision. Each of these techniques constructs a graph such that the minimum cut on the graph also minimizes the energy. Yet, because these graph constructions are co ..."
Abstract

Cited by 956 (22 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
In the last few years, several new algorithms based on graph cuts have been developed to solve energy minimization problems in computer vision. Each of these techniques constructs a graph such that the minimum cut on the graph also minimizes the energy. Yet, because these graph constructions are complex and highly specific to a particular energy function, graph cuts have seen limited application to date. In this paper, we give a characterization of the energy functions that can be minimized by graph cuts. Our results are restricted to functions of binary variables. However, our work generalizes many previous constructions and is easily applicable to vision problems that involve large numbers of labels, such as stereo, motion, image restoration, and scene reconstruction. We give a precise characterization of what energy functions can be minimized using graph cuts, among the energy functions that can be written as a sum of terms containing three or fewer binary variables. We also provide a generalpurpose construction to minimize such an energy function. Finally, we give a necessary condition for any energy function of binary variables to be minimized by graph cuts. Researchers who are considering the use of graph cuts to optimize a particular energy function can use our results to determine if this is possible and then follow our construction to create the appropriate graph. A software implementation is freely available.
Interactive Graph Cuts for Optimal Boundary & Region Segmentation of Objects in ND Images
, 2001
"... In this paper we describe a new technique for general purpose interactive segmentation of Ndimensional images. The user marks certain pixels as “object” or “background” to provide hard constraints for segmentation. Additional soft constraints incorporate both boundary and region information. Graph ..."
Abstract

Cited by 936 (19 self)
 Add to MetaCart
In this paper we describe a new technique for general purpose interactive segmentation of Ndimensional images. The user marks certain pixels as “object” or “background” to provide hard constraints for segmentation. Additional soft constraints incorporate both boundary and region information. Graph cuts are used to find the globally optimal segmentation of the Ndimensional image. The obtained solution gives the best balance of boundary and region properties among all segmentations satisfying the constraints. The topology of our segmentation is unrestricted and both “object” and “background” segments may consist of several isolatedparts. Some experimental results are presented in the context ofphotohideo editing and medical image segmentation. We also demonstrate an interesting Gestalt example. A fast implementation of our segmentation method is possible via a new mar$ow algorithm in [2].
Mathematical Methods of Statistics
, 1946
"... Optimised flows and bottlenecks in granular fabric ..."
Abstract

Cited by 701 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Optimised flows and bottlenecks in granular fabric
Graphcut textures: Image and video synthesis using graph cuts
 ACM Transactions on Graphics, SIGGRAPH 2003
, 2003
"... This banner was generated by merging the source images in Figure 6 using our interactive texture merging technique. In this paper we introduce a new algorithm for image and video texture synthesis. In our approach, patch regions from a sample image or video are transformed and copied to the output a ..."
Abstract

Cited by 461 (8 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This banner was generated by merging the source images in Figure 6 using our interactive texture merging technique. In this paper we introduce a new algorithm for image and video texture synthesis. In our approach, patch regions from a sample image or video are transformed and copied to the output and then stitched together along optimal seams to generate a new (and typically larger) output. In contrast to other techniques, the size of the patch is not chosen apriori, but instead a graph cut technique is used to determine the optimal patch region for any given offset between the input and output texture. Unlike dynamic programming, our graph cut technique for seam optimization is applicable in any dimension. We specifically explore it in 2D and 3D to perform video texture synthesis in addition to regular image synthesis. We present approximative offset search techniques that work well in conjunction with the presented patch size optimization. We show results for synthesizing regular, random, and natural images and videos. We also demonstrate how this method can be used to interactively merge different images to generate new scenes.
Convergent Treereweighted Message Passing for Energy Minimization
 ACCEPTED TO IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE (PAMI), 2006. ABSTRACTACCEPTED TO IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE (PAMI)
, 2006
"... Algorithms for discrete energy minimization are of fundamental importance in computer vision. In this paper we focus on the recent technique proposed by Wainwright et al. [33] treereweighted maxproduct message passing (TRW). It was inspired by the problem of maximizing a lower bound on the energy ..."
Abstract

Cited by 451 (13 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Algorithms for discrete energy minimization are of fundamental importance in computer vision. In this paper we focus on the recent technique proposed by Wainwright et al. [33] treereweighted maxproduct message passing (TRW). It was inspired by the problem of maximizing a lower bound on the energy. However, the algorithm is not guaranteed to increase this bound it may actually go down. In addition, TRW does not always converge. We develop a modification of this algorithm which we call sequential treereweighted message passing. Its main property is that the bound is guaranteed not to decrease. We also give a weak tree agreement condition which characterizes local maxima of the bound with respect to TRW algorithms. We prove that our algorithm has a limit point that achieves weak tree agreement. Finally, we show that our algorithm requires half as much memory as traditional message passing approaches. Experimental results demonstrate that on certain synthetic and real problems our algorithm outperforms both the ordinary belief propagation and treereweighted algorithm in [33]. In addition, on stereo problems with Potts interactions we obtain a lower energy than graph cuts.
A comparative study of energy minimization methods for Markov random fields
 IN ECCV
, 2006
"... One of the most exciting advances in early vision has been the development of efficient energy minimization algorithms. Many early vision tasks require labeling each pixel with some quantity such as depth or texture. While many such problems can be elegantly expressed in the language of Markov Ran ..."
Abstract

Cited by 376 (36 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
One of the most exciting advances in early vision has been the development of efficient energy minimization algorithms. Many early vision tasks require labeling each pixel with some quantity such as depth or texture. While many such problems can be elegantly expressed in the language of Markov Random Fields (MRF’s), the resulting energy minimization problems were widely viewed as intractable. Recently, algorithms such as graph cuts and loopy belief propagation (LBP) have proven to be very powerful: for example, such methods form the basis for almost all the topperforming stereo methods. Unfortunately, most papers define their own energy function, which is minimized with a specific algorithm of their choice. As a result, the tradeoffs among different energy minimization algorithms are not well understood. In this paper we describe a set of energy minimization benchmarks, which we use to compare the solution quality and running time of several common energy minimization algorithms. We investigate three promising recent methods—graph cuts, LBP, and treereweighted message passing—as well as the wellknown older iterated conditional modes (ICM) algorithm. Our benchmark problems are drawn from published energy functions used for stereo, image stitching and interactive segmentation. We also provide a generalpurpose software interface that allows vision researchers to easily switch between optimization methods with minimal overhead. We expect that the availability of our benchmarks and interface will make it significantly easier for vision researchers to adopt the best method for their specific problems. Benchmarks, code, results and images are available at
Computing Visual Correspondence with Occlusions using Graph Cuts
"... Several new algorithms for visual correspondence based on graph cuts [7, 14, 17] have recently been developed. While these methods give very strong results in practice, they do not handle occlusions properly. Specifically, they treat the two input images asymmetrically, and they do not ensure that a ..."
Abstract

Cited by 342 (11 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Several new algorithms for visual correspondence based on graph cuts [7, 14, 17] have recently been developed. While these methods give very strong results in practice, they do not handle occlusions properly. Specifically, they treat the two input images asymmetrically, and they do not ensure that a pixel corresponds to at most one pixel in the other image. In this paper, we present a new method which properly addresses occlusions, while preserving the advantages of graph cut algorithms. We give experimental results for stereo as well as motion, which demonstrate that our method performs well both at detecting occlusions and computing disparities.
Learning from Labeled and Unlabeled Data using Graph Mincuts
, 2001
"... Many application domains suffer from not having enough labeled training data for learning. However, large amounts of unlabeled examples can often be gathered cheaply. As a result, there has been a great deal of work in recent years on how unlabeled data can be used to aid classification. We consi ..."
Abstract

Cited by 318 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Many application domains suffer from not having enough labeled training data for learning. However, large amounts of unlabeled examples can often be gathered cheaply. As a result, there has been a great deal of work in recent years on how unlabeled data can be used to aid classification. We consider an algorithm based on finding minimum cuts in graphs, that uses pairwise relationships among the examples in order to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data. Our algorithm