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The adaptive nature of human categorization
 Psychological Review
, 1991
"... A rational model of human categorization behavior is presented that assumes that categorization reflects the derivation of optimal estimates of the probability of unseen features of objects. A Bayesian analysis is performed of what optimal estimations would be if categories formed a disjoint partiti ..."
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Cited by 242 (2 self)
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A rational model of human categorization behavior is presented that assumes that categorization reflects the derivation of optimal estimates of the probability of unseen features of objects. A Bayesian analysis is performed of what optimal estimations would be if categories formed a disjoint partitioning of the object space and if features were independently displayed within a category. This Bayesian analysis is placed within an incremental categorization algorithm. The resulting rational model accounts for effects of central tendency of categories, effects of specific instances, learning of linearly nonseparable categories, effects of category labels, extraction of basic level categories, baserate effects, probability matching in categorization, and trialbytrial learning functions. Although the rational model considers just I level of categorization, it is shown how predictions can be enhanced by considering higher and lower levels. Considering prediction at the lower, individual level allows integration of this rational analysis of categorization with the earlier rational analysis of memory (Anderson & Milson, 1989). Anderson (1990) presented a rational analysis ot 6 human cognition. The term rational derives from similar &quot;rationalman&quot; analyses in economics. Rational analyses in other fields are sometimes called adaptationist analyses. Basically, they are efforts to explain the behavior in some domain on the assumption that the behavior is optimized with respect to some criteria of adaptive importance. This article begins with a general characterization ofhow one develops a rational theory of a particular cognitive phenomenon. Then I present the basic theory of categorization developed in Anderson (1990) and review the applications from that book. Since the writing of the book, the theory has been greatly extended and applied to many new phenomena. Most of this article describes these new developments and applications. A Rational Analysis Several theorists have promoted the idea that psychologists might understand human behavior by assuming it is adapted to the environment (e.g., Brunswik, 1956; Campbell, 1974; Gib
A Bayesian Framework for Concept Learning
 DEPARTMENT OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY
, 1999
"... Human concept learning presents a version of the classic problem of induction, which is made particularly difficult by the combination of two requirements: the need to learn from a rich (i.e. nested and overlapping) vocabulary of possible concepts and the need to be able to generalize concepts reaso ..."
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Cited by 23 (3 self)
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Human concept learning presents a version of the classic problem of induction, which is made particularly difficult by the combination of two requirements: the need to learn from a rich (i.e. nested and overlapping) vocabulary of possible concepts and the need to be able to generalize concepts reasonably from only a few positive examples. I begin this thesis by considering a simple number concept game as a concrete illustration of this ability. On this task, human learners can with reasonable confidence lock in on one out of a billion billion billion logically possible concepts, after seeing only four positive examples of the concept, and can generalize informatively after seeing just a single example. Neither of the two classic approaches to inductive inference  hypothesis testing in a constrained space of possible rules and computing similarity to the observed examples  can provide a complete picture of how people generalize concepts in even this simple setting. This thesis prop...
ContextBased Similarity Applied to Retrieval of Relevant Cases
 Proceedings of AAAI Fall Symposium Series on Relevance
, 1994
"... Retrieving relevant cases is a crucial component of casebased reasoning systems. The task is to use userdefined query to retrieve useful information, i.e., exact matches or partial matches which are close to querydefined request according to certain measures. The difficulty stems from the fact th ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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Retrieving relevant cases is a crucial component of casebased reasoning systems. The task is to use userdefined query to retrieve useful information, i.e., exact matches or partial matches which are close to querydefined request according to certain measures. The difficulty stems from the fact that it may not be easy (or it may be even impossible) to specify query requests precisely and completely  resulting in a situation known as a fuzzyquerying. It is usually not a problem for small domains, but for a large repositories which store various information (multifunctional information bases or a federated databases), a request specification becomes a bottleneck. Thus, a flexible retrieval algorithm is required, allowing for imprecise query specification and for changing the viewpoint. Efficient database techniques exists for locating exact matches. Finding relevant partial matches might be a problem. This document proposes a contextbased similarity as a basis for flexible retrieval...
Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Vol.14 Chapter 4: Machine Learning
"... A A general model of learning.................................... 2 B Types of learning system...................................... 4 II Knowledgefree inductive learning systems................................ 5 ..."
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A A general model of learning.................................... 2 B Types of learning system...................................... 4 II Knowledgefree inductive learning systems................................ 5
Stuart Russell ANALOGY BY SIMILARITY
"... In this paper I discuss the relative merits of the logical and similaritybased approaches to reasoning by analogy. Although recent work by Davies and the author has shown that, given appropriate background knowledge, analogy can be viewed as a logical inference process, I reach the conclusion that ..."
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In this paper I discuss the relative merits of the logical and similaritybased approaches to reasoning by analogy. Although recent work by Davies and the author has shown that, given appropriate background knowledge, analogy can be viewed as a logical inference process, I reach the conclusion that pure similarity can provide a probabilistic basis for inference, and that, under certain assumptions concerning the nature of representation, a quantitative theory can be developed for the probability that an analogy is correct as a function of the degree of similarity observed. This theory also accords with psychological data (Shepard), and together with the logical approach promises to form the basis for a general implementation of analogical reasoning. 1. THE LOGICAL APPROACH Analogical reasoning is usually defined as the argument from known similarities between two things to the existence of further similarities. Formally, I define it as any inference following the schema P (S, A), P (T, A), Q(S, B) anal
Abstract A Logical Approach to Reasoning by Analogy
"... We analyze the logical form of the domain knowledge that grounds analogical inferences and generalizations from a single instance. The form of the assumptions which justify analogies is given schematically as the "determination rule", so called because it expresses the relation of ..."
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We analyze the logical form of the domain knowledge that grounds analogical inferences and generalizations from a single instance. The form of the assumptions which justify analogies is given schematically as the &quot;determination rule&quot;, so called because it expresses the relation of one set of variables determining the values of another set. The determination relation is a logical generalization of the different types of dependency relations denned in database theory. Specifically, we define determination as a relation between schemata of first order logic that have two kinds of free variables: (1) object variables and (2) what we call &quot;polar &quot; variables, which hold the place of truth values. Determination rules facilitate sound rule inference and valid conclusions projected by analogy from single instances, without implying what the conclusion should be