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33
Comprehending Monads
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 1992
"... Category theorists invented monads in the 1960's to concisely express certain aspects of universal algebra. Functional programmers invented list comprehensions in the 1970's to concisely express certain programs involving lists. This paper shows how list comprehensions may be generalised t ..."
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Cited by 522 (16 self)
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Category theorists invented monads in the 1960's to concisely express certain aspects of universal algebra. Functional programmers invented list comprehensions in the 1970's to concisely express certain programs involving lists. This paper shows how list comprehensions may be generalised to an arbitrary monad, and how the resulting programming feature can concisely express in a pure functional language some programs that manipulate state, handle exceptions, parse text, or invoke continuations. A new solution to the old problem of destructive array update is also presented. No knowledge of category theory is assumed.
Observers for Linear Types
 ESOP ’92: 4th European Symposium on Programming, Rennes, France, Proceedings
, 1992
"... Linear types provide the framework for a safe embedding of mutable state in functional languages by enforcing the principle that variables of linear type must be used exactly once. A potential disadvantage of this approach is that it places read accesses to suchvariables under the same restrictio ..."
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Cited by 30 (4 self)
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Linear types provide the framework for a safe embedding of mutable state in functional languages by enforcing the principle that variables of linear type must be used exactly once. A potential disadvantage of this approach is that it places read accesses to suchvariables under the same restriction as write accesses, and thus prevents reads to proceed in parallel. We present here an extension of linear types which augments the usual distinction between linear and nonlinear bya third state, observers of linear variables. Since, unlike linear variables, observers can be duplicated, multiple concurrent reads are made possible. On the other hand, observers must be shortlived enough to never overlap with mutations. The resulting type system is in many aspects similar to the one of ML: It is polymorphic, has principal types, and admits a type reconstruction algorithm. 1 Introduction We are investigating a type system that addresses the update problem in functional languages: How...
Shallow Binding Makes Functional Arrays Fast
 ACM SIGPLAN notices
, 1991
"... this paper is the first to make the connection with the literature on variablebinding environments. ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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this paper is the first to make the connection with the literature on variablebinding environments.
Orderofevaluation Analysis for Destructive Updates in Strict Functional Languages with Flat Aggregates
 In Conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture
, 1993
"... The aggregate update problem in functional languages is concerned with detecting cases where a functional array update operation can be implemented destructively in constant time. Previous work on this problem has assumed a fixed order of evaluation of expressions. In this paper, we devise a simple ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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The aggregate update problem in functional languages is concerned with detecting cases where a functional array update operation can be implemented destructively in constant time. Previous work on this problem has assumed a fixed order of evaluation of expressions. In this paper, we devise a simple analysis, for strict functional languages with flat aggregates, that derives a good order of evaluation for making the updates destructive. Our work improves Hudak's work [14] on abstract reference counting, which assumes fixed order of evaluation and uses the domain of sticky reference counts. Our abstract reference counting uses a 2point domain. We show that for programs with no aliasing, our analysis is provably more precise than Hudak's approach (even if the fixed order of evaluation chosen by Hudak happens to be the right order). We also show that our analysis algorithm runs in polynomial time. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work shows polynomial time complexity. We suggest ...
Linearity and Laziness
 In Proc. 5th ACM Conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer
, 1990
"... A criticism often levelled at functional languages is that they do not cope elegantly or efficiently with problems involving changes of state. In a recent paper [26], Wadler has proposed a new approach to these problems. His proposal involves the use of a type system based on the linear logic of Gir ..."
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Cited by 18 (1 self)
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A criticism often levelled at functional languages is that they do not cope elegantly or efficiently with problems involving changes of state. In a recent paper [26], Wadler has proposed a new approach to these problems. His proposal involves the use of a type system based on the linear logic of Girard [7]. This allows the programmer to specify the "natural" imperative operations without at the same time sacrificing the crucial property of referential transparency. In this paper we investigate the practicality of Wadler's approach, describing the design and implementation of a variant of Lazy ML [2]. A small example program shows how imperative operations can be used in a referentially transparent way, and at the same time it highlights some of the problems with the approach. Our implementation is based on a variant of the Gmachine [15, 1]. We give some benchmark figures to compare the performance of our machine with the original one. The results are disappointing: the cost of maintai...
Purely Functional RandomAccess Lists
 In Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture
, 1995
"... We present a new data structure, called a randomaccess list, that supports array lookup and update operations in O(log n) time, while simultaneously providing O(1) time list operations (cons, head, tail). A closer analysis of the array operations improves the bound to O(minfi; log ng) in the wor ..."
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Cited by 18 (2 self)
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We present a new data structure, called a randomaccess list, that supports array lookup and update operations in O(log n) time, while simultaneously providing O(1) time list operations (cons, head, tail). A closer analysis of the array operations improves the bound to O(minfi; log ng) in the worst case and O(log i) in the expected case, where i is the index of the desired element. Empirical evidence suggests that this data structure should be quite efficient in practice. 1 Introduction Lists are the primary data structure in every functional programmer 's toolbox. They are simple, convenient, and usually quite efficient. The main drawback of lists is that accessing the ith element requires O(i) time. In such situations, functional programmers often find themselves longing for the efficient random access of arrays. Unfortunately, arrays can be quite awkward to implement in a functional setting, where previous versions of the array must be available even after an update. Since arra...
How to Make Destructive Updates Less Destructive
 IN PROC. 18TH ACM SYMP. ON PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
, 1991
"... We present a safe embedding of mutable data structures in functional languages. With safety we mean that confluence and (in some sense) referential transparency are maintained. We develop a static criterion based on abstract interpretation which checks that any sideeffect which a function may exert ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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We present a safe embedding of mutable data structures in functional languages. With safety we mean that confluence and (in some sense) referential transparency are maintained. We develop a static criterion based on abstract interpretation which checks that any sideeffect which a function may exert via a destructive update remains invisible. The technique opens up the possibility of designing safe and efficient widespectrum languages which combine functional and imperative language constructs.
RealTime Deques, Multihead Turing Machines, and Purely Functional Programming
 In Conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture
, 1993
"... We answer the following question: Can a deque (double ended queue) be implemented in a purely functional language such that each push or pop operation on either end of a queue is accomplished in O(1) time in the worst case? The answer is yes, thus solving a problem posted by Gajewska and Tarjan [1 ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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We answer the following question: Can a deque (double ended queue) be implemented in a purely functional language such that each push or pop operation on either end of a queue is accomplished in O(1) time in the worst case? The answer is yes, thus solving a problem posted by Gajewska and Tarjan [14] and by Ponder, McGeer, and Ng [25], and refining results of Sarnak [26] and Hoogerwoord [18]. We term such a deque realtime, since its constant worstcase behavior might be useful in real time programs (assuming realtime garbage collection [3], etc.) Furthermore, we show that no restriction of the functional language is necessary, and that push and pop operations on previous versions of a deque can also be achieved in constant time. We present a purely functional implementation of real time deques and its complexity analysis. We then show that the implementation has some interesting implications, and can be used to give a realtime simulation of a multihead Turing machine in a purel...
Arrays in a lazy functional language  a case study: the fast Fourier transform
 2nd Arrays, functional languages, and parallel systems (ATABLE
, 1992
"... The array plays a prominent role in imperative programming languages because the data structure bears a close resemblance to the mathematical notion of a vector and because array operations can be implemented efficiently. Not all lazy functional languages offer arrays as a primitive data structure b ..."
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Cited by 12 (7 self)
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The array plays a prominent role in imperative programming languages because the data structure bears a close resemblance to the mathematical notion of a vector and because array operations can be implemented efficiently. Not all lazy functional languages offer arrays as a primitive data structure because laziness makes it difficult to implement arrays efficiently. We study 8 different versions of the Fast Fourier Transform, with and without arrays, to assess the importance of arrays in a lazy functional language. An efficient implementation of arrays contributes significantly to the performance of functional languages in certain areas. However, a clear distinction should be made between array construction and array subscription. In the FFT example we could not gain efficiency by using array construction, other than for storing precomputed data like the input. Using array subscription improves performance. 1
A Uniform Treatment of Order of Evaluation and Aggregate Update
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1993
"... The article presents an algorithm for the destructive update optimization in firstorder lazy functional languages. The main component of the method is a new static analysis of the order of evaluation of expressions which, compared to other published work, has a much lower complexity and is not rest ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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The article presents an algorithm for the destructive update optimization in firstorder lazy functional languages. The main component of the method is a new static analysis of the order of evaluation of expressions which, compared to other published work, has a much lower complexity and is not restricted to pure lazy evaluation. The other component, which we call reduction to variables, is a method of detecting the variables which denote locations where the result of an expression might be stored. Starting with the operational semantics of the language, we introduce some markers for the values in the basic domain. By appropriately choosing the set of markers M and the method of propagating them during evaluation, we can extract some property of the evaluation in which an expression can participate in by looking at the marker of its value. We define then an equivalent denotational semantics and derive the above analyses, in an uniform way, by abstract interpretation over a subdomain of...