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35
Statedependent representation independence
 In Proceedings of the 36th ACM SIGPLANSIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 2009
"... Mitchell’s notion of representation independence is a particularly useful application of Reynolds ’ relational parametricity — two different implementations of an abstract data type can be shown contextually equivalent so long as there exists a relation between their type representations that is pre ..."
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Cited by 63 (19 self)
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Mitchell’s notion of representation independence is a particularly useful application of Reynolds ’ relational parametricity — two different implementations of an abstract data type can be shown contextually equivalent so long as there exists a relation between their type representations that is preserved by their operations. There have been a number of methods proposed for proving representation independence in various pure extensions of System F (where data abstraction is achieved through existential typing), as well as in Algol or Javalike languages (where data abstraction is achieved through the use of local mutable state). However, none of these approaches addresses the interaction of existential type abstraction and local state. In particular, none allows one to prove representation independence results for generative ADTs — i.e., ADTs that both maintain some local state and define abstract types whose internal
A bisimulation for type abstraction and recursion
 SYMPOSIUM ON PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
, 2005
"... We present a bisimulation method for proving the contextual equivalence of packages in λcalculus with full existential and recursive types. Unlike traditional logical relations (either semantic or syntactic), our development is “elementary, ” using only sets and relations and avoiding advanced mach ..."
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Cited by 47 (4 self)
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We present a bisimulation method for proving the contextual equivalence of packages in λcalculus with full existential and recursive types. Unlike traditional logical relations (either semantic or syntactic), our development is “elementary, ” using only sets and relations and avoiding advanced machinery such as domain theory, admissibility, and ⊤⊤closure. Unlike other bisimulations, ours is complete even for existential types. The key idea is to consider sets of relations—instead of just relations—as bisimulations.
Environmental bisimulations for higherorder languages
 In TwentySecond Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science
, 2007
"... Developing a theory of bisimulation in higherorder languages can be hard. Particularly challenging can be: (1) the proof of congruence, as well as enhancements of the bisimulation proof method with “upto context ” techniques, and (2) obtaining definitions and results that scale to languages with d ..."
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Cited by 35 (11 self)
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Developing a theory of bisimulation in higherorder languages can be hard. Particularly challenging can be: (1) the proof of congruence, as well as enhancements of the bisimulation proof method with “upto context ” techniques, and (2) obtaining definitions and results that scale to languages with different features. To meet these challenges, we present environmental bisimulations, a form of bisimulation for higherorder languages, and its basic theory. We consider four representative calculi: pure λcalculi (callbyname and callbyvalue), callbyvalue λcalculus with higherorder store, and then HigherOrder πcalculus. In each case: we present the basic properties of environmental bisimilarity, including congruence; we show that it coincides with contextual equivalence; we develop some upto techniques, including upto context, as examples of possible enhancements of the associated bisimulation method. Unlike previous approaches (such as applicative bisimulations, logical relations, SumiiPierceKoutavasWand), our method does not require induction/indices on evaluation derivation/steps (which may complicate the proofs of congruence, transitivity, and the combination with upto techniques), or sophisticated methods such as Howe’s for proving congruence. It also scales from the pure λcalculi to the richer calculi with simple congruence proofs. 1
The impact of higherorder state and control effects on local relational reasoning
, 2010
"... Reasoning about program equivalence is one of the oldest problems in semantics. In recent years, useful techniques have been developed, based on bisimulations and logical relations, for reasoning about equivalence in the setting of increasingly realistic languages—languages nearly as complex as ML o ..."
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Cited by 32 (14 self)
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Reasoning about program equivalence is one of the oldest problems in semantics. In recent years, useful techniques have been developed, based on bisimulations and logical relations, for reasoning about equivalence in the setting of increasingly realistic languages—languages nearly as complex as ML or Haskell. Much of the recent work in this direction has considered the interesting representation independence principles enabled by the use of local state, but it is also important to understand the principles that powerful features like higherorder state and control effects disable. This latter topic has been broached extensively within the framework of game semantics, resulting in what Abramsky dubbed the “semantic cube”: fully abstract gamesemantic characterizations of various axes in the design space of MLlike languages. But when it comes to reasoning about many actual examples, game semantics does not yet supply a useful technique for proving equivalences. In this paper, we marry the aspirations of the semantic cube to the powerful proof method of stepindexed Kripke logical relations. Building on recent work of Ahmed, Dreyer, and Rossberg, we define the first fully abstract logical relation for an MLlike language with recursive types, abstract types, general references and call/cc. We then show how, under orthogonal restrictions to the expressive power of our language—namely, the restriction to firstorder state and/or the removal of call/cc—we can enhance the proving power of our possibleworlds model in correspondingly orthogonal ways, and we demonstrate this proving power on a range of interesting examples. Central to our story is the use of state transition systems to model the way in which properties of local state evolve over time.
Imperative selfadjusting computation
 In POPL ’08: Proceedings of the 35th annual ACM SIGPLANSIGACT symposium on Principles of programming languages
, 2008
"... Recent work on selfadjusting computation showed how to systematically write programs that respond efficiently to incremental changes in their inputs. The idea is to represent changeable data using modifiable references, i.e., a special data structure that keeps track of dependencies between read an ..."
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Cited by 27 (16 self)
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Recent work on selfadjusting computation showed how to systematically write programs that respond efficiently to incremental changes in their inputs. The idea is to represent changeable data using modifiable references, i.e., a special data structure that keeps track of dependencies between read and writeoperations, and to let computations construct traces that later, after changes have occurred, can drive a change propagation algorithm. The approach has been shown to be effective for a variety of algorithmic problems, including some for which adhoc solutions had previously remained elusive. All previous work on selfadjusting computation, however, relied on a purely functional programming model. In this paper, we show that it is possible to remove this limitation and support modifiable references that can be written multiple times. We formalize this using a language AIL for which we define evaluation and changepropagation semantics. AIL closely resembles a traditional higherorder imperative programming language. For AIL we state and prove consistency, i.e., the property that although the semantics is inherently nondeterministic, different evaluation paths will still give observationally equivalent results. In the imperative setting where pointer graphs in the store can form cycles, our previous proof techniques do not apply. Instead, we make use of a novel form of a stepindexed logical relation that handles modifiable references. We show that AIL can be realized efficiently by describing implementation strategies whose overhead is provably constanttime per primitive. When the number of reads and writes per modifiable is bounded by a constant, we can show that change propagation becomes as efficient as it was in the pure case. The general case incurs a slowdown that is logarithmic in the maximum number of such operations. We use DFS and related algorithms on graphs as our running examples and prove that they respond to insertions and deletions of edges efficiently. 1.
Relational reasoning for recursive types and references
 ASIAN SYMPOSIUM ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS (APLAS)
, 2006
"... We present a local relational reasoning method for reasoning about contextual equivalence of expressions in a λcalculus with recursive types and general references. Our development builds on the work of Benton and Leperchey, who devised a nominal semantics and a local relational reasoning method fo ..."
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Cited by 24 (6 self)
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We present a local relational reasoning method for reasoning about contextual equivalence of expressions in a λcalculus with recursive types and general references. Our development builds on the work of Benton and Leperchey, who devised a nominal semantics and a local relational reasoning method for a language with simple types and simple references. Their method uses a parameterized logical relation. Here we extend their approach to recursive types and general references. For the extension, we build upon Pitts ’ and Shinwell’s work on relational reasoning about recursive types (but no references) in nominal semantics. The extension is nontrivial because of general references (higherorder store) and makes use of some new ideas for proving the existence of the parameterized logical relation and for the choice of parameters.
A Relational Modal Logic for HigherOrder Stateful ADTs
"... The method of logical relations is a classic technique for proving the equivalence of higherorder programs that implement the same observable behavior but employ different internal data representations. Although it was originally studied for pure, strongly normalizing languages like System F, it ha ..."
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Cited by 20 (12 self)
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The method of logical relations is a classic technique for proving the equivalence of higherorder programs that implement the same observable behavior but employ different internal data representations. Although it was originally studied for pure, strongly normalizing languages like System F, it has been extended over the past two decades to reason about increasingly realistic languages. In particular, Appel and McAllester’s idea of stepindexing has been used recently to develop syntactic Kripke logical relations for MLlike languages that mix functional and imperative forms of data abstraction. However, while stepindexed models are powerful tools, reasoning with them directly is quite painful, as one is forced to engage in tedious stepindex arithmetic to derive even simple results. In this paper, we propose a logic LADR for equational reasoning about higherorder programs in the presence of existential type abstraction, general recursive types, and higherorder mutable state. LADR exhibits a novel synthesis of features from PlotkinAbadi logic, GödelLöb logic, S4 modal logic, and relational separation logic. Our model of LADR is based on Ahmed, Dreyer, and Rossberg’s stateoftheart stepindexed Kripke logical relation, which was designed to facilitate proofs of representation independence for “statedependent ” ADTs. LADR enables one to express such proofs at a much higher level, without counting steps or reasoning about the subtle, stepstratified construction of possible worlds.
A Complete Characterization of Observational Equivalence in Polymorphic λCalculus with General References
, 2009
"... We give a (sound and complete) characterization of observational equivalence in full polymorphic λcalculus with existential types and firstclass, higherorder references. Our method is syntactic and elementary in the sense that it only employs simple structures such as relations on terms. It is ne ..."
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Cited by 16 (2 self)
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We give a (sound and complete) characterization of observational equivalence in full polymorphic λcalculus with existential types and firstclass, higherorder references. Our method is syntactic and elementary in the sense that it only employs simple structures such as relations on terms. It is nevertheless powerful enough to prove many interesting equivalences that can and cannot be proved by previous approaches, including the latest work by Ahmed, Dreyer and Rossberg (to appear in POPL 2009). 1.
Logical StepIndexed Logical Relations
"... We show how to reason about “stepindexed ” logical relations in an abstract way, avoiding the tedious, errorprone, and proofobscuring stepindex arithmetic that seems superficially to be an essential element of the method. Specifically, we define a logic LSLR, which is inspired by Plotkin and Aba ..."
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Cited by 15 (6 self)
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We show how to reason about “stepindexed ” logical relations in an abstract way, avoiding the tedious, errorprone, and proofobscuring stepindex arithmetic that seems superficially to be an essential element of the method. Specifically, we define a logic LSLR, which is inspired by Plotkin and Abadi’s logic for parametricity, but also supports recursively defined relations by means of the modal “later ” operator from Appel et al.’s “very modal model” paper. We encode in LSLR a logical relation for reasoning (in)equationally about programs in callbyvalue System F extended with recursive types. Using this logical relation, we derive a useful set of rules with which we can prove contextual (in)equivalences without mentioning step indices. 1
Logical reasoning for higherorder functions with local state
 In Foundations of Software Science and Computation Structure
"... ABSTRACT. We introduce an extension of Hoare logic for callbyvalue higherorder functions with MLlike local reference generation. Local references may be generated dynamically and exported outside their scope, may store higherorder functions and may be used to construct complex mutable data stru ..."
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Cited by 13 (4 self)
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ABSTRACT. We introduce an extension of Hoare logic for callbyvalue higherorder functions with MLlike local reference generation. Local references may be generated dynamically and exported outside their scope, may store higherorder functions and may be used to construct complex mutable data structures. This primitive is captured logically using a predicate asserting reachability of a reference name from a possibly higherorder datum and quantifiers over hidden references. We explore the logic’s descriptive and reasoning power with nontrivial programming examples combining higherorder procedures and dynamically generated local state. Axioms for reachability and local invariant play a central role for reasoning about the examples.