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44
ANFIS: AdaptiveNetworkBased Fuzzy Inference System
, 1993
"... This paper presents the architecture and learning procedure underlying ANFIS (AdaptiveNetwork based Fuzzy Inference System), a fuzzy inference system implemented in the framework of adaptive networks. By using a hybrid learning procedure, the proposed ANFIS can construct an inputoutput mapping bas ..."
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Cited by 432 (5 self)
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This paper presents the architecture and learning procedure underlying ANFIS (AdaptiveNetwork based Fuzzy Inference System), a fuzzy inference system implemented in the framework of adaptive networks. By using a hybrid learning procedure, the proposed ANFIS can construct an inputoutput mapping based on both human knowledge (in the form of fuzzy ifthen rules) and stipulated inputoutput data pairs. In our simulation, we employ the ANFIS architecture to model nonlinear functions, identify nonlinear components onlinely in a control system, and predict a chaotic time series, all yielding remarkable results. Comparisons with artificail neural networks and earlier work on fuzzy modeling are listed and discussed. Other extensions of the proposed ANFIS and promising applications to automatic control and signal processing are also suggested. 1 Introduction System modeling based on conventional mathematical tools (e.g., differential equations) is not well suited for dealing with illdefine...
An empirical study of learning speed in backpropagation networks
, 1988
"... Most connectionist or "neural network" learning systems use some form of the backpropagation algorithm. However, backpropagation learning is too slow for many applications, and it scales up poorly as tasks become larger and more complex. The factors governing learning speed are poorly understood. ..."
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Cited by 224 (0 self)
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Most connectionist or "neural network" learning systems use some form of the backpropagation algorithm. However, backpropagation learning is too slow for many applications, and it scales up poorly as tasks become larger and more complex. The factors governing learning speed are poorly understood. I have begun a systematic, empirical study of learning speed in backproplike algorithms, measured against a variety of benchmark problems. The goal is twofold: to develop faster learning algorithms and to contribute to the development of a methodology that will be of value in future studies of this kind. This paper is a progress report describing the results obtained during the first six months of this study. To date I have looked only at a limited set of benchmark problems, but the results on these are encouraging: I have developed a new learning algorithm that is faster than standard backprop by an order of magnitude or more and that appears to scale up very well as the problem size increases.
KnowledgeBased Artificial Neural Networks
, 1994
"... Hybrid learning methods use theoretical knowledge of a domain and a set of classified examples to develop a method for accurately classifying examples not seen during training. The challenge of hybrid learning systems is to use the information provided by one source of information to offset informat ..."
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Cited by 145 (13 self)
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Hybrid learning methods use theoretical knowledge of a domain and a set of classified examples to develop a method for accurately classifying examples not seen during training. The challenge of hybrid learning systems is to use the information provided by one source of information to offset information missing from the other source. By so doing, a hybrid learning system should learn more effectively than systems that use only one of the information sources. KBANN(KnowledgeBased Artificial Neural Networks) is a hybrid learning system built on top of connectionist learning techniques. It maps problemspecific "domain theories", represented in propositional logic, into neural networks and then refines this reformulated knowledge using backpropagation. KBANN is evaluated by extensive empirical tests on two problems from molecular biology. Among other results, these tests show that the networks created by KBANN generalize better than a wide variety of learning systems, as well as several t...
Gradient calculation for dynamic recurrent neural networks: a survey
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 1995
"... Abstract  We survey learning algorithms for recurrent neural networks with hidden units, and put the various techniques into a common framework. We discuss xedpoint learning algorithms, namely recurrent backpropagation and deterministic Boltzmann Machines, and non xedpoint algorithms, namely backp ..."
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Cited by 135 (3 self)
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Abstract  We survey learning algorithms for recurrent neural networks with hidden units, and put the various techniques into a common framework. We discuss xedpoint learning algorithms, namely recurrent backpropagation and deterministic Boltzmann Machines, and non xedpoint algorithms, namely backpropagation through time, Elman's history cuto, and Jordan's output feedback architecture. Forward propagation, an online technique that uses adjoint equations, and variations thereof, are also discussed. In many cases, the uni ed presentation leads to generalizations of various sorts. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of temporally continuous neural networks in contrast to clocked ones, continue with some \tricks of the trade" for training, using, and simulating continuous time and recurrent neural networks. We present somesimulations, and at the end, address issues of computational complexity and learning speed.
First and SecondOrder Methods for Learning: between Steepest Descent and Newton's Method
 Neural Computation
, 1992
"... Online first order backpropagation is sufficiently fast and effective for many largescale classification problems but for very high precision mappings, batch processing may be the method of choice. This paper reviews first and secondorder optimization methods for learning in feedforward neura ..."
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Cited by 126 (6 self)
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Online first order backpropagation is sufficiently fast and effective for many largescale classification problems but for very high precision mappings, batch processing may be the method of choice. This paper reviews first and secondorder optimization methods for learning in feedforward neural networks. The viewpoint is that of optimization: many methods can be cast in the language of optimization techniques, allowing the transfer to neural nets of detailed results about computational complexity and safety procedures to ensure convergence and to avoid numerical problems. The review is not intended to deliver detailed prescriptions for the most appropriate methods in specific applications, but to illustrate the main characteristics of the different methods and their mutual relations.
Efficient BackProp
, 1998
"... . The convergence of backpropagation learning is analyzed so as to explain common phenomenon observed by practitioners. Many undesirable behaviors of backprop can be avoided with tricks that are rarely exposed in serious technical publications. This paper gives some of those tricks, and offers expl ..."
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Cited by 125 (24 self)
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. The convergence of backpropagation learning is analyzed so as to explain common phenomenon observed by practitioners. Many undesirable behaviors of backprop can be avoided with tricks that are rarely exposed in serious technical publications. This paper gives some of those tricks, and offers explanations of why they work. Many authors have suggested that secondorder optimization methods are advantageous for neural net training. It is shown that most "classical" secondorder methods are impractical for large neural networks. A few methods are proposed that do not have these limitations. 1 Introduction Backpropagation is a very popular neural network learning algorithm because it is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, and because it often works. However, getting it to work well, and sometimes to work at all, can seem more of an art than a science. Designing and training a network using backprop requires making many seemingly arbitrary choices such as the number ...
On The Problem Of Local Minima In Backpropagation
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1992
"... Supervised Learning in MultiLayered Neural Networks (MLNs) has been recently proposed through the wellknown Backpropagation algorithm. This is a gradient method which can get stuck in local minima, as simple examples can show. In this paper, some conditions on the network architecture and the lear ..."
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Cited by 72 (17 self)
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Supervised Learning in MultiLayered Neural Networks (MLNs) has been recently proposed through the wellknown Backpropagation algorithm. This is a gradient method which can get stuck in local minima, as simple examples can show. In this paper, some conditions on the network architecture and the learning environment are proposed which ensure the convergence of the Backpropagation algorithm. It is proven in particular that the convergence holds if the classes are linearlyseparable. In this case, the experience gained in several experiments shows that MLNs exceed perceptrons in generalization to new examples. Index Terms MultiLayered Networks, learning environment, Backpropagation, pattern recognition, linearlyseparable classes. I. Introduction Supervised learning in MultiLayered Networks can be accomplished thanks to Backpropagation (BP ) ([19, 25, 31]). Its application to several different subjects [25], and, particularly, to pattern recognition ([3, 6, 8, 20, 27, 29]), has bee...
Fast Exact Multiplication by the Hessian
 Neural Computation
, 1994
"... Just storing the Hessian H (the matrix of second derivatives d^2 E/dw_i dw_j of the error E with respect to each pair of weights) of a large neural network is difficult. Since a common use of a large matrix like H is to compute its product with various vectors, we derive a technique that directly ca ..."
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Cited by 70 (4 self)
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Just storing the Hessian H (the matrix of second derivatives d^2 E/dw_i dw_j of the error E with respect to each pair of weights) of a large neural network is difficult. Since a common use of a large matrix like H is to compute its product with various vectors, we derive a technique that directly calculates Hv, where v is an arbitrary vector. This allows H to be treated as a generalized sparse matrix. To calculate Hv, we first define a differential operator R{f(w)} = (d/dr)f(w + rv)_{r=0}, note that R{grad_w} = Hv and R{w} = v, and then apply R{} to the equations used to compute grad_w. The result is an exact and numerically stable procedure for computing Hv, which takes about as much computation, and is about as local, as a gradient evaluation. We then apply the technique to backpropagation networks, recurrent backpropagation, and stochastic Boltzmann Machines. Finally, we show that this technique can be used at the heart of many iterative techniques for computing various properties of H, obviating the need for direct methods.
Regression Modeling in BackPropagation and Projection Pursuit Learning
, 1994
"... We studied and compared two types of connectionist learning methods for modelfree regression problems in this paper. One is the popular backpropagation learning (BPL) well known in the artificial neural networks literature; the other is the projection pursuit learning (PPL) emerged in recent years ..."
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Cited by 65 (1 self)
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We studied and compared two types of connectionist learning methods for modelfree regression problems in this paper. One is the popular backpropagation learning (BPL) well known in the artificial neural networks literature; the other is the projection pursuit learning (PPL) emerged in recent years in the statistical estimation literature. Both the BPL and the PPL are based on projections of the data in directions determined from interconnection weights. However, unlike the use of fixed nonlinear activations (usually sigmoidal) for the hidden neurons in BPL, the PPL systematically approximates the unknown nonlinear activations. Moreover, the BPL estimates all the weights simultaneously at each iteration, while the PPL estimates the weights cyclically (neuronbyneuron and layerbylayer) at each iteration. Although the BPL and the PPL have comparable training speed when based on a GaussNewton optimization algorithm, the PPL proves more parsimonious in that the PPL requires a fewer hi...
NeuralNetwork Feature Selector
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 1997
"... Feature selection is an integral part of most learning algorithms. Due to the existence of irrelevant and redundant attributes, by selecting only the relevant attributes of the data, higher predictive accuracy can be expected from a machine learning method. In this paper, we propose the use of a ..."
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Cited by 56 (3 self)
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Feature selection is an integral part of most learning algorithms. Due to the existence of irrelevant and redundant attributes, by selecting only the relevant attributes of the data, higher predictive accuracy can be expected from a machine learning method. In this paper, we propose the use of a threelayer feedforward neural network to select those input attributes that are most useful for discriminating classes in a given set of input patterns. A network pruning algorithm is the foundation of the proposed algorithm. By adding a penalty term to the error function of the network, redundant network connections can be distinguished from those relevant ones by their small weights when the network training process has been completed. A simple criterion to remove an attribute based on the accuracy rate of the network is developed. The network is retrained after removal of an attribute, and the selection process is repeated until no attribute meets the criterion for removal. Our ...