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An extension of the recursively enumerable Turing degrees
 Journal of the London Mathematical Society
, 2006
"... Consider the countable semilattice RT consisting of the recursively enumerable Turing degrees. Although RT is known to be structurally rich, a major source of frustration is that no specific, natural degrees in RT have been discovered, except the bottom and top degrees, 0 and 0 ′. In order to overco ..."
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Cited by 22 (16 self)
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Consider the countable semilattice RT consisting of the recursively enumerable Turing degrees. Although RT is known to be structurally rich, a major source of frustration is that no specific, natural degrees in RT have been discovered, except the bottom and top degrees, 0 and 0 ′. In order to overcome this difficulty, we embed RT into a larger degree structure which is better behaved. Namely, consider the countable distributive lattice Pw consisting of the weak degrees (also known as Muchnik degrees) of mass problems associated with nonempty Π 0 1 subsets of 2ω. It is known that Pw contains a bottom degree 0 and a top degree 1 and is structurally rich. Moreover, Pw contains many specific, natural degrees other than 0 and 1. In particular, we show that in Pw one has 0 < d < r1 < inf(r2, 1) < 1. Here, d is the weak degree of the diagonally nonrecursive functions, and rn is the weak degree of the nrandom reals. It is known that r1 can be characterized as the maximum weak degree ofaΠ 0 1 subset of 2ω of positive measure. We now show that inf(r2, 1) can be characterized as the maximum weak degree of a Π 0 1 subset of 2ω, the Turing upward closure of which is of positive measure. We exhibit a natural embedding of RT into Pw which is onetoone, preserves the semilattice structure of RT, carries 0 to 0, and carries 0 ′ to 1. Identifying RT with its image in Pw, we show that all of the degrees in RT except 0 and 1 are incomparable with the specific degrees d, r1, and inf(r2, 1) inPw. 1.
Embeddings into the Medvedev and Muchnik lattices of Π0 1 classes
 Archive for Mathematical Logic
, 2004
"... Archive for Mathematical Logic Let Pw and PM be the countable distributive lattices of Muchnik and Medvedev degrees of nonempty Π 0 1 subsets of 2 ω, under Muchnik and Medvedev reducibility, respectively. We show that all countable distributive lattices are latticeembeddable below any nonzero ele ..."
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Cited by 22 (17 self)
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Archive for Mathematical Logic Let Pw and PM be the countable distributive lattices of Muchnik and Medvedev degrees of nonempty Π 0 1 subsets of 2 ω, under Muchnik and Medvedev reducibility, respectively. We show that all countable distributive lattices are latticeembeddable below any nonzero element of Pw. We show that many countable distributive lattices are latticeembeddable below any nonzero element of PM. 1
Medvedev degrees of 2dimensional subshifts of finite type. Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems
"... In this paper we apply some fundamental concepts and results from recursion theory in order to obtain an apparently new counterexample in symbolic dynamics. Two sets X and Y are said to be Medvedev equivalent if there exist partial recursive functionals from X into Y and vice versa. The Medvedev deg ..."
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Cited by 17 (9 self)
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In this paper we apply some fundamental concepts and results from recursion theory in order to obtain an apparently new counterexample in symbolic dynamics. Two sets X and Y are said to be Medvedev equivalent if there exist partial recursive functionals from X into Y and vice versa. The Medvedev degree of X is the equivalence class of X under Medvedev equivalence. There is an extensive recursiontheoretic literature on the lattice of Medvedev degrees of nonempty Π 0 1 subsets of {0, 1} N. This lattice is known as Ps. We prove that Ps consists precisely of the Medvedev degrees of 2dimensional subshifts of finite type. We use this result to obtain an infinite collection of 2dimensional subshifts of finite type which are, in a certain sense, mutually incompatible. Definition 1. Let A be a finite set of symbols. The full 2dimensional shift on A is the dynamical system consisting of the natural action of Z2 on the compact set AZ2. A 2dimensional subshift is a nonempty closed set X ⊆ AZ2 which is invariant under the action of Z2. A 2dimensional subshift X is said to be of finite type if it is defined by a finite set of forbidden configurations. An interesting paper on 2dimensional subshifts of finite type is Mozes [22]. A standard reference for the 1dimensional case is the book of Lind/Marcus [20], which also includes an appendix [20, §13.10] on the 2dimensional case.
Mass problems and almost everywhere domination
 Mathematical Logic Quarterly
, 2007
"... We examine the concept of almost everywhere domination from the viewpoint of mass problems. Let AED and MLR be the set of reals which are almost everywhere dominating and MartinLöf random, respectively. Let b1, b2, b3 be the degrees of unsolvability of the mass problems associated with the sets AED ..."
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Cited by 10 (7 self)
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We examine the concept of almost everywhere domination from the viewpoint of mass problems. Let AED and MLR be the set of reals which are almost everywhere dominating and MartinLöf random, respectively. Let b1, b2, b3 be the degrees of unsolvability of the mass problems associated with the sets AED, MLR×AED, MLR∩AED respectively. Let Pw be the lattice of degrees of unsolvability of mass problems associated with nonempty Π 0 1 subsets of 2 ω. Let 1 and 0 be the top and bottom elements of Pw. We show that inf(b1,1) and inf(b2,1) and inf(b3,1) belong to Pw and that 0 < inf(b1,1) < inf(b2,1) < inf(b3,1) < 1. Under the natural embedding of the recursively enumerable Turing degrees into Pw, we show that inf(b1,1) and inf(b3,1) but not inf(b2,1) are comparable with some recursively enumerable Turing degrees other than 0 and 0 ′. In order to make this paper more selfcontained, we exposit the proofs of some recent theorems due to Hirschfeldt, Miller, Nies, and Stephan.
Some fundamental issues concerning degrees of unsolvability
 In [6], 2005. Preprint
, 2007
"... Recall that RT is the upper semilattice of recursively enumerable Turing degrees. We consider two fundamental, classical, unresolved issues concerning RT. The first issue is to find a specific, natural, recursively enumerable Turing degree a ∈ RT which is> 0 and < 0 ′. The second issue is to f ..."
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Cited by 9 (8 self)
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Recall that RT is the upper semilattice of recursively enumerable Turing degrees. We consider two fundamental, classical, unresolved issues concerning RT. The first issue is to find a specific, natural, recursively enumerable Turing degree a ∈ RT which is> 0 and < 0 ′. The second issue is to find a “smallness property ” of an infinite, corecursively enumerable set A ⊆ ω which ensures that the Turing degree deg T (A) = a ∈ RT is> 0 and < 0 ′. In order to address these issues, we embed RT into a slightly larger degree structure, Pw, which is much better behaved. Namely, Pw is the lattice of weak degrees of mass problems associated with nonempty Π 0 1 subsets of 2 ω. We define a specific, natural embedding of RT into Pw, and we present some recent and new research results.
Mass problems and measuretheoretic regularity
, 2009
"... Research supported by NSF grants DMS0600823 and DMS0652637. ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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Research supported by NSF grants DMS0600823 and DMS0652637.
Mass problems
, 2004
"... This note consists of an abstract and references for a seminar talk to be given ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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This note consists of an abstract and references for a seminar talk to be given
The Complexity of Finding SUBSEQ(A)
"... Higman showed that if A is any language then SUBSEQ(A) is regular. His proof wasnonconstructive. We show that the result cannot be made constructive. In particular we show that if f takes as input an index e of a total Turing Machine Me, and outputs a DFA forSUBSEQ(L(M e)), then;00 ^T f (f is \Sig ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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Higman showed that if A is any language then SUBSEQ(A) is regular. His proof wasnonconstructive. We show that the result cannot be made constructive. In particular we show that if f takes as input an index e of a total Turing Machine Me, and outputs a DFA forSUBSEQ(L(M e)), then;00 ^T f (f is \Sigma 2hard). We also study the complexity of going from Ato SUBSEQ(A) for several representations of A and SUBSEQ(A).
The first order theories of the Medvedev and the Muchnik lattice
"... We show that the first order theories of the Medevdev lattice and the Muchnik lattice are both computably isomorphic to the third order theory of true arithmetic. 1 ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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We show that the first order theories of the Medevdev lattice and the Muchnik lattice are both computably isomorphic to the third order theory of true arithmetic. 1
ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE MEDVEDEV LATTICE
, 2008
"... We investigate the structure of the Medvedev lattice as a partial order. We prove that every interval in the lattice is either finite, in which case it is isomorphic to a finite Boolean algebra, or contains an antichain of size 2 2 ℵ 0, the size of the lattice itself. We also prove that it is consis ..."
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We investigate the structure of the Medvedev lattice as a partial order. We prove that every interval in the lattice is either finite, in which case it is isomorphic to a finite Boolean algebra, or contains an antichain of size 2 2 ℵ 0, the size of the lattice itself. We also prove that it is consistent that the lattice has chains of size 2 2 ℵ 0, and in fact that these big chains occur in every interval that has a big antichain. We also study embeddings of lattices and algebras. We show that large Boolean algebras can be embedded into the Medvedev lattice as upper semilattices, but that a Boolean algebra can be embedded as a lattice only if it is countable. Finally we discuss which of these results hold for the closely related Muchnik lattice. 1