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Theory and Practice of Constraint Handling Rules
, 1998
"... Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) are our proposal to allow more flexibility and applicationoriented customization of constraint systems. CHR are a declarative language extension especially designed for writing userdefined constraints. CHR are essentially a committedchoice language consisting of mu ..."
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Cited by 396 (35 self)
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Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) are our proposal to allow more flexibility and applicationoriented customization of constraint systems. CHR are a declarative language extension especially designed for writing userdefined constraints. CHR are essentially a committedchoice language consisting of multiheaded guarded rules that rewrite constraints into simpler ones until they are solved. In this broad survey we aim at covering all aspects of CHR as they currently present themselves. Going from theory to practice, we will define syntax and semantics for CHR, introduce an important decidable property, confluence, of CHR programs and define a tight integration of CHR with constraint logic programming languages. This survey then describes implementations of the language before we review several constraint solvers  both traditional and non standard ones  written in the CHR language. Finally we introduce two innovative applications that benefited from using CHR.
Algorithms for Constraint Satisfaction Problems: A Survey
 AI MAGAZINE
, 1992
"... A large variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of computer science can be viewed as a special case of the constraint satisfaction problem. Some examples are machine vision, belief maintenance, scheduling, temporal reasoning, graph problems, floor plan design, planning genetic ..."
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Cited by 371 (0 self)
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A large variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of computer science can be viewed as a special case of the constraint satisfaction problem. Some examples are machine vision, belief maintenance, scheduling, temporal reasoning, graph problems, floor plan design, planning genetic experiments, and the satisfiability problem. A number of different approaches have been developed for solving these problems. Some of them use constraint propagation to simplify the original problem. Others use backtracking to directly search for possible solutions. Some are a combination of these two techniques. This paper presents a brief overview of many of these approaches in a tutorial fashion.
Temporal Reasoning Based on SemiIntervals
, 1992
"... A generalization of Allen's intervalbased approach to temporal reasoning is presented. The notion of `conceptual neighborhood' of qualitative relations between events is central to the presented approach. Relations between semiintervals rather than intervals are used as the basic units of knowledg ..."
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Cited by 235 (14 self)
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A generalization of Allen's intervalbased approach to temporal reasoning is presented. The notion of `conceptual neighborhood' of qualitative relations between events is central to the presented approach. Relations between semiintervals rather than intervals are used as the basic units of knowledge. Semiintervals correspond to temporal beginnings or endings of events. We demonstrate the advantages of reasoning on the basis of semiintervals: 1) semiintervals are rather natural entities both from a cognitive and from a computational point of view; 2) coarse knowledge can be processed directly; computational effort is saved; 3) incomplete knowledge about events can be fully exploited; 4) incomplete inferences made on the basis of complete knowledge can be used directly for further inference steps; 5) there is no tradeoff in computational strength for the added flexibility and efficiency; 6) for a natural subset of Allen's algebra, global consistency can be guaranteed in polynomial time; 7) knowledge about relations between events can be represented much more compactly.
Actions and Events in Interval Temporal Logic
 Journal of Logic and Computation
, 1994
"... We present a representation of events and action based on interval temporal logic that is significantly more expressive and more natural than most previous AI approaches. The representation is motivated by work in natural language semantics and discourse, temporal logic, and AI planning and plan rec ..."
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Cited by 234 (7 self)
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We present a representation of events and action based on interval temporal logic that is significantly more expressive and more natural than most previous AI approaches. The representation is motivated by work in natural language semantics and discourse, temporal logic, and AI planning and plan recognition. The formal basis of the representation is presented in detail, from the axiomatization of time periods to the relationship between actions and events and their effects. The power of the representation is illustrated by applying it to the axiomatization and solution of several standard problems from the AI literature on action and change. An approach to the frame problem based on explanation closure is shown to be both powerful and natural when combined with our representational framework. We also discuss features of the logic that are beyond the scope of many traditional representations, and describe our approach to difficult problems such as external events and simultaneous action...
Telos: Representing Knowledge About Information Systems
 ACM Transactions on Information Systems
, 1990
"... This paper describes a language that is intended to support software engineers in the development of information systems throughout the software lifecycle. This language is not a programming language. Following the example of a number of other software engineering projects, our work is based on the ..."
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Cited by 215 (42 self)
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This paper describes a language that is intended to support software engineers in the development of information systems throughout the software lifecycle. This language is not a programming language. Following the example of a number of other software engineering projects, our work is based on the premise that information system development is knowledgeintensive and that the primary responsibility of any language intended to support this task is to be able to formally represent the relevant knowledge.
Reasoning about Temporal Relations: A Maximal Tractable Subclass of Allen's Interval Algebra
 Journal of the ACM
, 1995
"... We introduce a new subclass of Allen's interval algebra we call "ORDHorn subclass," which is a strict superset of the "pointisable subclass." We prove that reasoning in the ORDHorn subclass is a polynomialtime problem and show that the pathconsistency method is sufficient for deciding satisfiabil ..."
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Cited by 160 (9 self)
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We introduce a new subclass of Allen's interval algebra we call "ORDHorn subclass," which is a strict superset of the "pointisable subclass." We prove that reasoning in the ORDHorn subclass is a polynomialtime problem and show that the pathconsistency method is sufficient for deciding satisfiability. Further, using an extensive machinegenerated case analysis, we show that the ORDHorn subclass is a maximal tractable subclass of the full algebra (assuming<F NaN> P6=NP). In fact, it is the unique greatest tractable subclass amongst the subclasses that contain all basic relations. This work has been supported by the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under grant ITW 8901 8 as part of the WIP project and under grant ITW 9201 as part of the TACOS project. 1 1 Introduction Temporal information is often conveyed qualitatively by specifying the relative positions of time intervals such as ". . . point to the figure while explaining the performance of the system . . . "...
Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Constraints in Temporal Reasoning
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1996
"... This paper presents a general model for temporal reasoning that is capable of handling both qualitative and quantitative information. This model allows the representation and processing of many types of constraints discussed in the literature to date, including metric constraints (restricting the ..."
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Cited by 140 (0 self)
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This paper presents a general model for temporal reasoning that is capable of handling both qualitative and quantitative information. This model allows the representation and processing of many types of constraints discussed in the literature to date, including metric constraints (restricting the distance between time points) and qualitative, disjunctive constraints (specifying the relative position of temporal objects). Reasoning tasks in this unified framework are formulated as constraint satisfaction problems and are solved by traditional constraint satisfaction techniques, such as backtracking and path consistency. New classes of tractable problems are characterized, involving qualitative networks augmented by quantitative domain constraints, some of which can be solved in polynomial time using arc and path consistency. This work was supported in part by grants from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, AFOSR 900136, and the National Science Foundation, IRI 8815522...
Reasoning about Qualitative Temporal Information
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1992
"... Representing and reasoning about incomplete and indefinite qualitative temporal information is an essential part of many artificial intelligence tasks. An intervalbased framework and a pointbased framework have been proposed for representing such temporal information. In this paper, we address ..."
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Cited by 136 (5 self)
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Representing and reasoning about incomplete and indefinite qualitative temporal information is an essential part of many artificial intelligence tasks. An intervalbased framework and a pointbased framework have been proposed for representing such temporal information. In this paper, we address two fundamental reasoning tasks that arise in applications of these frameworks: Given possibly indefinite and incomplete knowledge of the relationships between some intervals or points, (i) find a scenario that is consistent with the information provided, and (ii) find the feasible relations between all pairs of intervals or points. For the pointbased framework and a restricted version of the intervalbased framework, we give computationally efficient procedures for finding a consistent scenario and for finding the feasible relations. Our algorithms are marked improvements over the previously known algorithms. In particular, we develop an O(n 2 ) time algorithm for finding one co...
From Local to Global Consistency
, 1992
"... In reasoning tasks involving the maintenance of consistent databases (socalled QQconstraint networks/Q/Q), it is customary to enforce local consistency conditions in order to simplify the subsequent construction of a globally coherent model of the data. In this paper we present a relationship betwe ..."
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Cited by 109 (7 self)
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In reasoning tasks involving the maintenance of consistent databases (socalled QQconstraint networks/Q/Q), it is customary to enforce local consistency conditions in order to simplify the subsequent construction of a globally coherent model of the data. In this paper we present a relationship between the sizes of the variables' domains, the constraints' arity and the level of local consistency sufficient to ensure global consistency. Based on these parameters a new tractability classification of constraint networks is presented. We also show, based on this relationship, that any relation on bivalued variables which is not representable by a network of binary constraints cannot be represented by networks with any number of hidden variables.
On the Complexity of Qualitative Spatial Reasoning: A Maximal Tractable Fragment of the Region Connection Calculus
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1997
"... The computational properties of qualitative spatial reasoning have been investigated to some degree. However, the question for the boundary between polynomial and NPhard reasoning problems has not been addressed yet. In this paper we explore this boundary in the "Region Connection Calculus" RCC8. ..."
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Cited by 108 (22 self)
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The computational properties of qualitative spatial reasoning have been investigated to some degree. However, the question for the boundary between polynomial and NPhard reasoning problems has not been addressed yet. In this paper we explore this boundary in the "Region Connection Calculus" RCC8. We extend Bennett's encoding of RCC8 in modal logic. Based on this encoding, we prove that reasoning is NPcomplete in general and identify a maximal tractable subset of the relations in RCC8 that contains all base relations. Further, we show that for this subset pathconsistency is sufficient for deciding consistency. 1 Introduction When describing a spatial configuration or when reasoning about such a configuration, often it is not possible or desirable to obtain precise, quantitative data. In these cases, qualitative reasoning about spatial configurations may be used. One particular approach in this context has been developed by Randell, Cui, and Cohn [20], the socalled Region Connecti...