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Operations on records
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 1991
"... We define a simple collection of operations for creating and manipulating record structures, where records are intended as finite associations of values to labels. A secondorder type system over these operations supports both subtyping and polymorphism. We provide typechecking algorithms and limite ..."
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Cited by 151 (13 self)
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We define a simple collection of operations for creating and manipulating record structures, where records are intended as finite associations of values to labels. A secondorder type system over these operations supports both subtyping and polymorphism. We provide typechecking algorithms and limited semantic models. Our approach unifies and extends previous notions of records, bounded quantification, record extension, and parametrization by rowvariables. The general aim is to provide foundations for concepts found in objectoriented languages, within a framework based on typed lambdacalculus.
Inheritance As Implicit Coercion
 Information and Computation
, 1991
"... . We present a method for providing semantic interpretations for languages with a type system featuring inheritance polymorphism. Our approach is illustrated on an extension of the language Fun of Cardelli and Wegner, which we interpret via a translation into an extended polymorphic lambda calculus. ..."
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Cited by 126 (4 self)
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. We present a method for providing semantic interpretations for languages with a type system featuring inheritance polymorphism. Our approach is illustrated on an extension of the language Fun of Cardelli and Wegner, which we interpret via a translation into an extended polymorphic lambda calculus. Our goal is to interpret inheritances in Fun via coercion functions which are definable in the target of the translation. Existing techniques in the theory of semantic domains can be then used to interpret the extended polymorphic lambda calculus, thus providing many models for the original language. This technique makes it possible to model a rich type discipline which includes parametric polymorphism and recursive types as well as inheritance. A central difficulty in providing interpretations for explicit type disciplines featuring inheritance in the sense discussed in this paper arises from the fact that programs can typecheck in more than one way. Since interpretations follow the type...
Type Inference for Record Concatenation and Multiple Inheritance
, 1989
"... We show that the type inference problem for a lambda calculus with records, including a record concatenation operator, is decidable. We show that this calculus does not have principal types, but does have finite complete sets of types: that is, for any term M in the calculus, there exists an effecti ..."
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Cited by 118 (2 self)
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We show that the type inference problem for a lambda calculus with records, including a record concatenation operator, is decidable. We show that this calculus does not have principal types, but does have finite complete sets of types: that is, for any term M in the calculus, there exists an effectively generable finite set of type schemes such that every typing for M is an instance of one the schemes in the set. We show how a simple model of objectoriented programming, including hidden instance variables and multiple inheritance, may be coded in this calculus. We conclude that type inference is decidable for objectoriented programs, even with multiple inheritance and classes as firstclass values. 1. Introduction A practical motivation for type inference is to ensure an operational safety property of programs that are welltyped: that is, when we execute a welltyped program, we are guaranteed that we will never get an error message such as "bad function nil." Our goal is to ext...
Algebraic Reconstruction of Types and Effects
, 1991
"... We present the first algorithm for reconstructing the types and effects of expressions in the presence of first class procedures in a polymorphic typed language. Effects are static descriptions of the dynamic behavior of expressions. Just as a type describes what an expression computes, an effect de ..."
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Cited by 113 (6 self)
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We present the first algorithm for reconstructing the types and effects of expressions in the presence of first class procedures in a polymorphic typed language. Effects are static descriptions of the dynamic behavior of expressions. Just as a type describes what an expression computes, an effect describes how an expression computes. Types are more complicated to reconstruct in the presence of effects because the algebra of effects induces complex constraints on both effects and types. In this paper we show how to perform reconstruction in the presence of such constraints with a new algorithm called algebraic reconstruction, prove that it is sound and complete, and discuss its practical import. This research was supported by DARPA under ONR Contract N0001489J1988. 1
Type Inference for Records in a Natural Extension of ML
 Theoretical Aspects of ObjectOriented Programming: Types, Semantics, and Language Design
, 1994
"... We describe an extension of ML with records where inheritance is given by ML generic polymorphism. All common operations on records but concatenation are supported, in particular the free extension of records. Other operations such as renaming of fields are added. The solution relies on an extension ..."
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Cited by 84 (7 self)
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We describe an extension of ML with records where inheritance is given by ML generic polymorphism. All common operations on records but concatenation are supported, in particular the free extension of records. Other operations such as renaming of fields are added. The solution relies on an extension of ML, where the language of types is sorted and considered modulo equations, and on a record extension of types. The solution is simple and modular and the type inference algorithm is efficient in practice.
Programming with Intersection Types and Bounded Polymorphism
, 1991
"... representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government. ..."
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Cited by 77 (4 self)
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representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government.
A Record Calculus Based on Symmetric Concatenation
 In Proc. of the ACM Symp. on Principles of Programming Languages
, 1991
"... Type systems for operations on extensible records form a foundation for statically typed languages addressing some aspects of object oriented programming and database applications. A number of primitive operations have been proposed: extending a record with a new field, overwriting an existing field ..."
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Cited by 60 (2 self)
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Type systems for operations on extensible records form a foundation for statically typed languages addressing some aspects of object oriented programming and database applications. A number of primitive operations have been proposed: extending a record with a new field, overwriting an existing field, removing a field, and various kinds of concatenation. We show here that a record calculus based on a symmetric concatenation operator, where two records may be concatenated only if they have no overlapping fields, also captures the types of many other useful primitive record operations. "Mergeability constraints" are expressed directly using explicit annotations on type variables and constrained secondorder type quantification instead of a rule of subsumption; we argue that the resulting system is more straightforward than subsumptionbased alternatives. This research was supported in part by the Office of Naval Research and in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD), ...
An extension of Standard ML modules with Subtyping And Inheritance
"... We describe a general module language integrating abstract data types, specifications and objectoriented concepts. The framework is based on the Standard ML module system, with three main extensions: subtyping, a form of object derived from ML structures, and inheritance primitives. The language ai ..."
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Cited by 58 (8 self)
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We describe a general module language integrating abstract data types, specifications and objectoriented concepts. The framework is based on the Standard ML module system, with three main extensions: subtyping, a form of object derived from ML structures, and inheritance primitives. The language aims at supporting a range of programming styles, including mixtures of objectoriented programming and programs built around specified algebraic or higherorder abstract data types. We separate specification from implementation, and provide independent inheritance mechanisms for each. In order to support binary operations on objects within this framework, we introduce "internal interfaces" which govern the way that function components of one structure may access components of another. The language design has been tested by writing a number of program examples; an implementation is under development in the context of a larger project.
Some Properties of Query Languages for Bags
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF 4TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON DATABASE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
, 1993
"... In this paper we study the expressive power of query languages for nested bags. We define the ambient bag language by generalizing the constructs of the relational language of BreazuTannen, Buneman and Wong, which is known to have precisely the power of the nested relational algebra. Relative s ..."
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Cited by 47 (32 self)
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In this paper we study the expressive power of query languages for nested bags. We define the ambient bag language by generalizing the constructs of the relational language of BreazuTannen, Buneman and Wong, which is known to have precisely the power of the nested relational algebra. Relative strength of additional polynomial constructs is studied, and the ambient language endowed with the strongest combination of those constructs is chosen as a candidate for the basic bag language, which is called BQL (Bag Query Language). We prove that achieveing the power of BQL in the relational language amounts to adding simple arithmetic to the latter. We show that BQL has shortcomings of the relational algebra: it can not express recursive queries. In particular, parity test is not definable in BQL. We consider augmenting BQL with powerbag and structural recursion to overcome this deficiency. In contrast to the relational case, where powerset and structural recursion are equivalent...
Polymorphism and Type Inference in Database Programming
"... In order to find a static type system that adequately supports database languages, we need to express the most general type of a program that involves database operations. This can be achieved through an extension to the type system of ML that captures the polymorphic nature of field selection, toge ..."
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Cited by 42 (10 self)
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In order to find a static type system that adequately supports database languages, we need to express the most general type of a program that involves database operations. This can be achieved through an extension to the type system of ML that captures the polymorphic nature of field selection, together with a technique that generalizes relational operators to arbitrary data structures. The combination provides a statically typed language in which generalized relational databases may be cleanly represented as typed structures. As in ML types are inferred, which relieves the programmer of making the type assertions that may be required in a complex database environment. These extensions may also be used to provide static polymorphic typechecking in objectoriented languages and databases. A problem that arises with objectoriented databases is the apparent need for dynamic typechecking when dealing with queries on heterogeneous collections of objects. An extension of the type system needed for generalized relational operations can also be used for manipulating collections of dynamically typed values in a statically typed language. A prototype language based on these ideas has been implemented. While it lacks a proper treatment of persistent data, it demonstrates that a wide variety of database structures can be cleanly represented in a polymorphic programming language.