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98
Verbs and Adverbs: Multidimensional Motion Interpolation Using Radial Basis Functions
 IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
, 1998
"... This paper describes methods and data structures used to leverage motion sequences of complex linked figures. We present a technique for interpolating between example motions derived from live motion capture or produced through traditional animation tools. These motions can be characterized by emoti ..."
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Cited by 262 (5 self)
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This paper describes methods and data structures used to leverage motion sequences of complex linked figures. We present a technique for interpolating between example motions derived from live motion capture or produced through traditional animation tools. These motions can be characterized by emotional expressiveness or control behaviors such as turning or going uphill or downhill. We call such parameterized motions "verbs" and the parameters that control them "adverbs." Verbs can be combined with other verbs to form a "verb graph," with smooth transitions between them, allowing an animated figure to exhibit a substantial repertoire of expressive behaviors. A combination of radial basis functions and low order polynomials is used to create the interpolation space between example motions. Inverse kinematic constraints are used to augment the interpolations in order to avoid, for example, the feet slipping on the floor during a support phase of a walk cycle. Once the verbs and...
Motion Graphs
, 2002
"... In this paper we present a novel method for creating realistic, controllable motion. Given a corpus of motion capture data, we automatically construct a directed graph called a motion graph that encapsulates connections among the database. The motion graph consists both of pieces of original motion ..."
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Cited by 261 (5 self)
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In this paper we present a novel method for creating realistic, controllable motion. Given a corpus of motion capture data, we automatically construct a directed graph called a motion graph that encapsulates connections among the database. The motion graph consists both of pieces of original motion and automatically generated transitions. Motion can be generated simply by building walks on the graph. We present a general framework for extracting particular graph walks that meet a user's specifications. We then show how this framework can be applied to the specific problem of generating different styles of locomotion along arbitrary paths.
Physically Based Motion Transformation
 SIGGRAPH 1999
, 1999
"... We introduce a novel algorithm for transforming character animation sequences that preserves essential physical properties of the motion. By using the spacetime constraints dynamics formulation our algorithm maintains realism of the original motion sequence without sacrificing full user control of t ..."
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Cited by 176 (7 self)
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We introduce a novel algorithm for transforming character animation sequences that preserves essential physical properties of the motion. By using the spacetime constraints dynamics formulation our algorithm maintains realism of the original motion sequence without sacrificing full user control of the editing process. In contrast to
A Hierarchical Approach to Interactive Motion Editing for Humanlike Figures
, 1999
"... This paper presents a technique for adapting existing motion of a humanlike character to have the desired features that are specified by a set of constraints. This problem can be typically formulated as a spacetime constraint problem. Our approach combines a hierarchical curve fitting technique wit ..."
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Cited by 170 (12 self)
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This paper presents a technique for adapting existing motion of a humanlike character to have the desired features that are specified by a set of constraints. This problem can be typically formulated as a spacetime constraint problem. Our approach combines a hierarchical curve fitting technique with a new inverse kinematics solver. Using the kinematics solver, we can adjust the configuration of an articulated figure to meet the constraints in each frame. Through the fitting technique, the motion displacement of every joint at each constrained frame is interpolated and thus smoothly propagated to frames. We are able to adaptively add motion details to satisfy the constraints within a specified tolerance by adopting a multilevel Bspline representation which also provides a speedup for the interpolation. The performance of our system is further enhanced by the new inverse kinematics solver. We present a closedform solution to compute the joint angles of a limb linkage. This analytical m...
Synthesizing physically realistic human motion in lowdimensional, behaviorspecific spaces
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2004
"... Optimization is an appealing way to compute the motion of an animated character because it allows the user to specify the desired motion in a sparse, intuitive way. The difficulty of solving this problem for complex characters such as humans is due in part to the high dimensionality of the search sp ..."
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Cited by 140 (13 self)
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Optimization is an appealing way to compute the motion of an animated character because it allows the user to specify the desired motion in a sparse, intuitive way. The difficulty of solving this problem for complex characters such as humans is due in part to the high dimensionality of the search space. The dimensionality is an artifact of the problem representation because most dynamic human behaviors are intrinsically low dimensional with, for example, legs and arms operating in a coordinated way. We describe a method that exploits this observation to create an optimization problem that is easier to solve. Our method utilizes an existing motion capture database to find a lowdimensional space that captures the properties of the desired behavior. We show that when the optimization problem is solved within this lowdimensional subspace, a sparse sketch can be used as an initial guess and full physics constraints can be enabled. We demonstrate the power of our approach with examples of forward, vertical, and turning jumps; with running and walking; and with several acrobatic flips.
Learning PhysicsBased Motion Style with Nonlinear Inverse Optimization
 ACM Trans. Graph
, 2005
"... This paper presents a novel physicsbased representation of realistic character motion. The dynamical model incorporates several factors of locomotion derived from the biomechanical literature, including relative preferences for using some muscles more than others, elastic mechanisms at joints due t ..."
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Cited by 100 (14 self)
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This paper presents a novel physicsbased representation of realistic character motion. The dynamical model incorporates several factors of locomotion derived from the biomechanical literature, including relative preferences for using some muscles more than others, elastic mechanisms at joints due to the mechanical properties of tendons, ligaments, and muscles, and variable stiffness at joints depending on the task. When used in a spacetime optimization framework, the parameters of this model define a wide range of styles of natural human movement.
Adapting Simulated Behaviors for New Characters
, 1997
"... This paper describes an algorithm for automatically adapting existing simulated behaviors to new characters. Animating a new character is difficult because a control system tuned for one character will not, in general, work on a character with different limb lengths, masses, or moments of inertia. T ..."
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Cited by 94 (5 self)
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This paper describes an algorithm for automatically adapting existing simulated behaviors to new characters. Animating a new character is difficult because a control system tuned for one character will not, in general, work on a character with different limb lengths, masses, or moments of inertia. The algorithm presented here adapts the control system to a new character in two stages. First, the control system parameters are scaled based on the sizes, masses, and moments of inertia of the new and the original characters. Then a subset of the parameters is finetuned using a search process based on simulated annealing. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, we animate the running motion of a woman, child, and imaginary character by modifying the control system for a man. We also animate the bicycling motion of a second imaginary character by modifying the control system for a man. We evaluate the results of this approach by comparing the motion of the simulated human runners...
Efficient Synthesis of Physically Valid Human Motion
, 2003
"... Optimization is a promising way to generate new animations from a minimal amount of input data. Physically based optimization techniques, however, are difficult to scale to complex animated characters, in part because evaluating and differentiating physical quantities becomes prohibitively slow. Tra ..."
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Cited by 91 (3 self)
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Optimization is a promising way to generate new animations from a minimal amount of input data. Physically based optimization techniques, however, are difficult to scale to complex animated characters, in part because evaluating and differentiating physical quantities becomes prohibitively slow. Traditional approaches often require optimizing or constraining parameters involving joint torques; obtaining first derivatives for these parameters is generally an O(D²) process, where D is the number of degrees of freedom of the character. In this paper, we describe a set of objective functions and constraints that lead to linear time analytical first derivatives. The surprising finding is that this set includes constraints on physical validity, such as ground contact constraints. Considering only constraints and objective functions that lead to linear time first derivatives results in fast periteration computation times and an optimization problem that appears to scale well to more complex characters. We show that qualities such as squashandstretch that are expected from physically based optimization result from our approach. Our animation system is particularly useful for synthesizing highly dynamic motions, and we show examples of swinging and leaping motions for characters having from 7 to 22 degrees of freedom.
NeuroAnimator: Fast Neural Network Emulation and Control of PhysicsBased Models
, 1998
"... Animation through the numerical simulation of physicsbased graphics models offers unsurpassed realism, but it can be computationally demanding. Likewise, finding controllers that enable physicsbased models to produce desired animations usually entails formidable computational cost. This paper de ..."
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Cited by 84 (3 self)
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Animation through the numerical simulation of physicsbased graphics models offers unsurpassed realism, but it can be computationally demanding. Likewise, finding controllers that enable physicsbased models to produce desired animations usually entails formidable computational cost. This paper demonstrates the possibility of replacing the numerical simulation and control of model dynamics with a dramatically more efficient alternative. In particular, we propose the NeuroAnimator, a novel approach to creating physically realistic animation that exploits neural networks. NeuroAnimators are automatically trained offline to emulate physical dynamics through the observation of physicsbased models in action. Depending on the model, its neural network emulator can yield physically realistic animation one or two orders of magnitude faster than conventional numerical simulation. Furthermore, by exploiting the network structure of the NeuroAnimator, we introduce a fast algorithm for learning controllers that enables either physicsbased models or their neural network emulators to synthesize motions satisfying prescribed animation goals. We demonstrate NeuroAnimators for passive and active (actuated) rigid body, articulated, and deformable physicsbased models.