Results 1  10
of
31
Ultimate Wellfounded and Stable Semantics for Logic Programs With Aggregates (Extended Abstract)
 In Proceedings of ICLP01, LNCS 2237
, 2001
"... is relatively straightforward. Another advantage of the ultimate approximation is that in cases where TP is monotone the ultimate wellfounded model will be 2valued and will coincide with the least fixpoint of TP . This is not the case for the standard wellfounded semantics. For example in the sta ..."
Abstract

Cited by 44 (7 self)
 Add to MetaCart
is relatively straightforward. Another advantage of the ultimate approximation is that in cases where TP is monotone the ultimate wellfounded model will be 2valued and will coincide with the least fixpoint of TP . This is not the case for the standard wellfounded semantics. For example in the standard wellfounded model of the program: # p. p. p is undefined while the associated TP operator is monotone and p is true in the ultimate wellfounded model. One disadvantage of using the ultimate semantics is that it has a higher computational cost even for programs without aggregates. The complexity goes one level higher in the polynomial hierarchy to # 2 for the wellfounded model and to 2 for a stable model which is also complete for this class [2]. Fortunately, by adding aggregates the complexity does not increase further. To give an example of a logic program with aggregates we consider the problem of computing the length of the shortest path between two nodes in a direc
A logic of nonmonotone inductive definitions
 ACM transactions on computational logic
, 2007
"... Wellknown principles of induction include monotone induction and different sorts of nonmonotone induction such as inflationary induction, induction over wellfounded sets and iterated induction. In this work, we define a logic formalizing induction over wellfounded sets and monotone and iterated i ..."
Abstract

Cited by 28 (16 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Wellknown principles of induction include monotone induction and different sorts of nonmonotone induction such as inflationary induction, induction over wellfounded sets and iterated induction. In this work, we define a logic formalizing induction over wellfounded sets and monotone and iterated induction. Just as the principle of positive induction has been formalized in FO(LFP), and the principle of inflationary induction has been formalized in FO(IFP), this paper formalizes the principle of iterated induction in a new logic for NonMonotone Inductive Definitions (IDlogic). The semantics of the logic is strongly influenced by the wellfounded semantics of logic programming. This paper discusses the formalisation of different forms of (non)monotone induction by the wellfounded semantics and illustrates the use of the logic for formalizing mathematical and commonsense knowledge. To model different types of induction found in mathematics, we define several subclasses of definitions, and show that they are correctly formalized by the wellfounded semantics. We also present translations into classical first or second order logic. We develop modularity and totality results and demonstrate their use to analyze and simplify complex definitions. We illustrate the use of the logic for temporal reasoning. The logic formally extends Logic Programming, Abductive Logic Programming and Datalog, and thus formalizes the view on these formalisms as logics of (generalized) inductive definitions. Categories and Subject Descriptors:... [...]:... 1.
Embedding NonGround Logic Programs into Autoepistemic Logic for Knowledge Base Combination
, 2008
"... ..."
Approximations, Stable Operators, WellFounded Fixpoints And Applications In Nonmonotonic Reasoning
, 2000
"... In this paper we develop an algebraic framework for studying semantics of nonmonotonic logics. Our approach is formulated in the language of lattices, bilattices, operators and fixpoints. The goal is to describe fixpoints of an operator O defined on a lattice. The key intuition is that of an approxi ..."
Abstract

Cited by 18 (8 self)
 Add to MetaCart
In this paper we develop an algebraic framework for studying semantics of nonmonotonic logics. Our approach is formulated in the language of lattices, bilattices, operators and fixpoints. The goal is to describe fixpoints of an operator O defined on a lattice. The key intuition is that of an approximation, a pair (x, y) of lattice elements which can be viewed as an approximation to each lattice element z such that x z y. The key notion is that of an approximating operator, a monotone operator on the bilattice of approximations whose fixpoints approximate the fixpoints of the operator O. The main contribution of the paper is an algebraic construction which assigns a certain operator, called the stable operator, to every approximating operator on a bilattice of approximations. This construction leads to an abstract version of the wellfounded semantics. In the paper we show that our theory offers a unified framework for semantic studies of logic programming, default logic and autoepistemic logic.
Logic programs with abstract constraint atoms: the role of computations
 Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2007), LNCS, Springer, 2007 (this
, 2005
"... Abstract. We provide new perspectives on the semantics of logic programs with constraints. To this end we introduce several notions of computation and propose to use the results of computations as answer sets of programs with constraints. We discuss the rationale behind different classes of computat ..."
Abstract

Cited by 16 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Abstract. We provide new perspectives on the semantics of logic programs with constraints. To this end we introduce several notions of computation and propose to use the results of computations as answer sets of programs with constraints. We discuss the rationale behind different classes of computations and study the relationships among them and among the corresponding concepts of answer sets. The proposed semantics generalize the answer set semantics for programs with monotone, convex and/or arbitrary constraints described in the literature. 1
Managing uncertainty and vagueness in description logics, logic programs and description logic programs
, 2008
"... Managing uncertainty and/or vagueness is starting to play an important role in Semantic Web representation languages. Our aim is to overview basic concepts on representing uncertain and vague knowledge in current Semantic Web ontology and rule languages (and their combination). ..."
Abstract

Cited by 16 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Managing uncertainty and/or vagueness is starting to play an important role in Semantic Web representation languages. Our aim is to overview basic concepts on representing uncertain and vague knowledge in current Semantic Web ontology and rule languages (and their combination).
Ultimate approximation and its application in nonmonotonic knowledge representation systems
, 2004
"... ..."
Anyworld assumptions in logic programming
, 2005
"... Due to the usual incompleteness of information representation, any approach to assign a semantics to logic programs has to rely on a default assumption on the missing information. The stable model semantics, that has become the dominating approach to give semantics to logic programs, relies on the C ..."
Abstract

Cited by 8 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Due to the usual incompleteness of information representation, any approach to assign a semantics to logic programs has to rely on a default assumption on the missing information. The stable model semantics, that has become the dominating approach to give semantics to logic programs, relies on the Closed World Assumption (CWA), which asserts that by default the truth of an atom is false. There is a second wellknown assumption, called Open World Assumption (OWA), which asserts that the truth of the atoms is supposed to be unknown by default. However, the CWA, the OWA and the combination of them are extremal, though important, assumptions over a large variety of possible assumptions on the truth of the atoms, whenever the truth is taken from an arbitrary truth space. The topic of this paper is to allow any assignment (i.e. interpretation), over a truth space, to be a default assumption. Our main result is that our extension is conservative in the sense that under the “everywhere false ” default assumption (CWA) the usual stable model semantics is captured. Due to the generality and the purely algebraic nature of our approach, it abstracts from the particular formalism of choice and the results may be applied in other contexts as well.
What's in a Model? Epistemological analysis of Logic Programming
 CeurWS
, 2003
"... The paper is an epistemological analysis of logic programming and shows an epistemological ambiguity. Many different logic programming formalisms and semantics have been proposed. Hence, logic programming can be seen as a family of formal logics, each induced by a pair of a syntax and a semantics ..."
Abstract

Cited by 8 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The paper is an epistemological analysis of logic programming and shows an epistemological ambiguity. Many different logic programming formalisms and semantics have been proposed. Hence, logic programming can be seen as a family of formal logics, each induced by a pair of a syntax and a semantics, and each having a different declarative reading. However, we may expect that (a) if a program belongs to different logics of this family and has the same formal semantics in these logics, then the declarative meaning attributed to this program in the different logics is equivalent, and (b) that one and the same logic in this family has not been associated with distinct declarative readings.
Strong and uniform equivalence of nonmonotonic theories — an algebraic approach
 Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference (KR2006
, 2006
"... We show that the concepts of strong and uniform equivalence of logic programs can be generalized to an abstract algebraic setting of operators on complete lattices. Our results imply characterizations of strong and uniform equivalence for several nonmonotonic logics including logic programming with ..."
Abstract

Cited by 8 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We show that the concepts of strong and uniform equivalence of logic programs can be generalized to an abstract algebraic setting of operators on complete lattices. Our results imply characterizations of strong and uniform equivalence for several nonmonotonic logics including logic programming with aggregates, default logic and a version of autoepistemic logic. 1