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184
Expected stock returns and volatility
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 1987
"... This paper examines the relation between stock returns and stock market volatility. We find evidence that the expected market risk premium (the expected return on a stock portfolio minus the Treasury bill yield) is positively related to the predictable volatility of stock returns. There is also evid ..."
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Cited by 338 (8 self)
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This paper examines the relation between stock returns and stock market volatility. We find evidence that the expected market risk premium (the expected return on a stock portfolio minus the Treasury bill yield) is positively related to the predictable volatility of stock returns. There is also evidence that unexpected stock market returns are negatively related to the unexpected change in the volatility of stock returns. This negative relation provides indirect evidence of a positive relation between expected risk premiums and volatility. 1.
Illiquidity and Stock Returns: Crosssection and Timeseries Effects
 Journal of Financial Markets
, 2002
"... This paper shows that over time, expected market illiquidity positively affects ex ante stock excess return, suggesting that expected stock excess return partly represents an illiquidity premium. This complements the crosssectional positive return–illiquidity relationship. Also, stock returns are n ..."
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Cited by 305 (3 self)
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This paper shows that over time, expected market illiquidity positively affects ex ante stock excess return, suggesting that expected stock excess return partly represents an illiquidity premium. This complements the crosssectional positive return–illiquidity relationship. Also, stock returns are negatively related over time to contemporaneous unexpected illiquidity. The illiquidity measure here is the average across stocks of the daily ratio of absolute stock return to dollar volume, which is easily obtained from daily stock data for long time series in most stock markets. Illiquidity affects more strongly small firm stocks, thus explaining time series variations in their premiums over
Investing for the long run when returns are predictable
 Journal of Finance
, 2000
"... We examine how the evidence of predictability in asset returns affects optimal portfolio choice for investors with long horizons. Particular attention is paid to estimation risk, or uncertainty about the true values of model parameters. We find that even after incorporating parameter uncertainty, th ..."
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Cited by 278 (0 self)
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We examine how the evidence of predictability in asset returns affects optimal portfolio choice for investors with long horizons. Particular attention is paid to estimation risk, or uncertainty about the true values of model parameters. We find that even after incorporating parameter uncertainty, there is enough predictability in returns to make investors allocate substantially more to stocks, the longer their horizon. Moreover, the weak statistical significance of the evidence for predictability makes it important to take estimation risk into account; a longhorizon investor who ignores it may overallocate to stocks by a sizeable amount. ONE OF THE MORE STRIKING EMPIRICAL FINDINGS in recent financial research is the evidence of predictability in asset returns. 1 In this paper we examine the implications of this predictability for an investor seeking to make sensible portfolio allocation decisions. We approach this question from the perspective of horizon effects: Given the evidence of predictability in returns, should a longhorizon investor allocate his wealth differently from a shorthorizon investor? The motivation for thinking about the problem in these terms is the classic work of Samuelson ~1969! and Merton ~1969!. They show that if asset returns are i.i.d., an investor with power utility who rebalances his portfolio optimally should choose the same asset allocation, regardless of investment horizon. In light of the growing body of evidence that returns are predictable, the investor’s horizon may no longer be irrelevant. The extent to which the horizon does play a role serves as an interesting and convenient way of thinking about how predictability affects portfolio choice. Moreover, the results may shed light on the common but controversial advice that investors with long horizons should allocate more heavily to stocks. 2
Predictive regressions
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 1999
"... When a rate of return is regressed on a lagged stochastic regressor, such as a dividend yield, the regression disturbance is correlated with the regressor's innovation. The OLS estimator's "nitesample properties, derived here, can depart substantially from the standard regression setting. Bayesian ..."
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Cited by 248 (9 self)
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When a rate of return is regressed on a lagged stochastic regressor, such as a dividend yield, the regression disturbance is correlated with the regressor's innovation. The OLS estimator's "nitesample properties, derived here, can depart substantially from the standard regression setting. Bayesian posterior distributions for the regression parameters are obtained under speci"cations that di!er with respect to (i) prior beliefs about the autocorrelation of the regressor and (ii) whether the initial observation of the regressor is speci"ed as "xed or stochastic. The posteriors di!er across such speci"cations, and asset allocations in the presence of estimation risk exhibit sensitivity to those
The Determinants of Credit Spread Changes
, 2001
"... Using dealer’s quotes and transactions prices on straight industrial bonds, we investigate the determinants of credit spread changes. Variables that should in theory determine credit spread changes have rather limited explanatory power. Further, the residuals from this regression are highly crossco ..."
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Cited by 229 (2 self)
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Using dealer’s quotes and transactions prices on straight industrial bonds, we investigate the determinants of credit spread changes. Variables that should in theory determine credit spread changes have rather limited explanatory power. Further, the residuals from this regression are highly crosscorrelated, and principal components analysis implies they are mostly driven by a single common factor. Although we consider several macroeconomic and financial variables as candidate proxies, we cannot explain this common systematic component. Our results suggest that monthly credit spread changes are principally driven by local supply0 demand shocks that are independent of both creditrisk factors and standard proxies for liquidity.
Asset pricing at the millennium
 Journal of Finance
"... This paper surveys the field of asset pricing. The emphasis is on the interplay between theory and empirical work and on the tradeoff between risk and return. Modern research seeks to understand the behavior of the stochastic discount factor ~SDF! that prices all assets in the economy. The behavior ..."
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Cited by 126 (3 self)
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This paper surveys the field of asset pricing. The emphasis is on the interplay between theory and empirical work and on the tradeoff between risk and return. Modern research seeks to understand the behavior of the stochastic discount factor ~SDF! that prices all assets in the economy. The behavior of the term structure of real interest rates restricts the conditional mean of the SDF, whereas patterns of risk premia restrict its conditional volatility and factor structure. Stylized facts about interest rates, aggregate stock prices, and crosssectional patterns in stock returns have stimulated new research on optimal portfolio choice, intertemporal equilibrium models, and behavioral finance. This paper surveys the field of asset pricing. The emphasis is on the interplay between theory and empirical work. Theorists develop models with testable predictions; empirical researchers document “puzzles”—stylized facts that fail to fit established theories—and this stimulates the development of new theories. Such a process is part of the normal development of any science. Asset pricing, like the rest of economics, faces the special challenge that data are generated naturally rather than experimentally, and so researchers cannot control the quantity of data or the random shocks that affect the data. A particularly interesting characteristic of the asset pricing field is that these random shocks are also the subject matter of the theory. As Campbell, Lo, and MacKinlay ~1997, Chap. 1, p. 3! put it: What distinguishes financial economics is the central role that uncertainty plays in both financial theory and its empirical implementation. The starting point for every financial model is the uncertainty facing investors, and the substance of every financial model involves the impact of uncertainty on the behavior of investors and, ultimately, on mar* Department of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
A Comprehensive Look at the Empirical Performance of Equity Premium Prediction,” working paper
, 2004
"... Given the historically high equity premium, is it now a good time to invest in the stock market? Economists have suggested a whole range of variables that investors could or should use to predict: dividend price ratios, dividend yields, earningsprice ratios, dividend payout ratios, net issuing rati ..."
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Cited by 121 (4 self)
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Given the historically high equity premium, is it now a good time to invest in the stock market? Economists have suggested a whole range of variables that investors could or should use to predict: dividend price ratios, dividend yields, earningsprice ratios, dividend payout ratios, net issuing ratios, bookmarket ratios, interest rates (in various guises), and consumptionbased macroeconomic ratios (cay). The typical paper reports that the variable predicted well in an insample regression, implying forecasting ability. Our paper explores the outofsample performance of these variables, and finds that not a single one would have helped a realworld investor outpredicting the thenprevailing historical equity premium mean. Most would have outright hurt. Therefore, we find that, for all practical purposes, the equity premium has not been predictable, and any belief about whether the stock market is now too high or too low has to be based on theoretical prior, not on the empirically variables we have explored.
Estimating Portfolio and Consumption Choice: A Conditional Euler Equations Approach
 JOURNAL OF FINANCE
, 1999
"... This paper develops a nonparametric approach to examine how portfolio and consumption choice depends on variables that forecast timevarying investment opportunities. I estimate singleperiod and multiperiod portfolio and consumption rules of an investor with constant relative risk aversion and a on ..."
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Cited by 119 (11 self)
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This paper develops a nonparametric approach to examine how portfolio and consumption choice depends on variables that forecast timevarying investment opportunities. I estimate singleperiod and multiperiod portfolio and consumption rules of an investor with constant relative risk aversion and a onemonth to 20year horizon. The investor allocates wealth to the NYSE index and a 30day Treasury bill. I find that the portfolio choice varies significantly with the dividend yield, default premium, term premium, and lagged excess return. Furthermore, the optimal decisions depend on the investor’s horizon and rebalancing frequency.
Stock Return Predictability and Model Uncertainty
, 2002
"... We use Bayesian model averaging to analyze the sample evidence on return predictability in the presence of model uncertainty. The analysis reveals insample and outofsample predictability, and shows that the outofsample performance of the Bayesian approach is superior to that of model selecti ..."
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Cited by 97 (3 self)
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We use Bayesian model averaging to analyze the sample evidence on return predictability in the presence of model uncertainty. The analysis reveals insample and outofsample predictability, and shows that the outofsample performance of the Bayesian approach is superior to that of model selection criteria. We find that term and market premia are robust predictors. Moreover, smallcap value stocks appear more predictable than largecap growth stocks. We also investigate the implications of model uncertainty from investment management perspectives. We show that model uncertainty is more important than estimation risk, and investors who discard model uncertainty face large utility losses.
Capital markets research in accounting
, 2001
"... I review empirical research on the relation between capital markets and financial statements.The principal sources of demand for capital markets research in accounting are fundamental analysis and valuation, tests of market efficiency, and the role of accounting numbers in contracts and the politica ..."
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Cited by 83 (3 self)
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I review empirical research on the relation between capital markets and financial statements.The principal sources of demand for capital markets research in accounting are fundamental analysis and valuation, tests of market efficiency, and the role of accounting numbers in contracts and the political process.The capital markets research topics of current interest to researchers include tests of market efficiency with respect to accounting information, fundamental analysis, and value relevance of financial reporting.Evidence from research on these topics is likely to be helpful in capital market investment decisions, accounting standard setting, and corporate financial