Results 1  10
of
2,008
Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models
, 2000
"... In this paper we develop some statistical theory for factor models of large dimensions. The focus is the determination of the number of factors, which is an unresolved issue in the rapidly growing literature on multifactor models. We propose a panel Cp criterion and show that the number of factors c ..."
Abstract

Cited by 538 (29 self)
 Add to MetaCart
In this paper we develop some statistical theory for factor models of large dimensions. The focus is the determination of the number of factors, which is an unresolved issue in the rapidly growing literature on multifactor models. We propose a panel Cp criterion and show that the number of factors can be consistently estimated using the criterion. The theory is developed under the framework of large crosssections (N) and large time dimensions (T). No restriction is imposed on the relation between N and T. Simulations show that the proposed criterion yields almost precise estimates of the number of factors for configurations of the panel data encountered in practice. The idea that variations in a large number of economic variables can be modelled bya small number of reference variables is appealing and is used in manyeconomic analysis. In the finance literature, the arbitrage pricing theory(APT) of Ross (1976) assumes that a small number of factors can be used to explain a large number of asset returns.
Market liquidity and funding liquidity
 Review of Financial Studies
, 2009
"... We provide a model that links a security’s market liquidity — i.e., the ease of trading it — and traders ’ funding liquidity — i.e., their availability of funds. Traders provide market liquidity and their ability to do so depends on their funding, that is, their capital and the margins charged by th ..."
Abstract

Cited by 399 (12 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We provide a model that links a security’s market liquidity — i.e., the ease of trading it — and traders ’ funding liquidity — i.e., their availability of funds. Traders provide market liquidity and their ability to do so depends on their funding, that is, their capital and the margins charged by their financiers. In times of crisis, reductions in market liquidity and funding liquidity are mutually reinforcing, leading to a liquidity spiral. The model explains the empirically documented features that market liquidity (i) can suddenly dry up (i.e. is fragile), (ii) has commonality across securities, (iii) is related to volatility, (iv) experiences “flight to liquidity ” events, and (v) comoves with the market. Finally, the model shows how the Fed can improve current market liquidity by committing to improve funding in a potential future crisis.
Nonparametric Estimation of StatePrice Densities Implicit In Financial Asset Prices
 JOURNAL OF FINANCE
, 1997
"... Implicit in the prices of traded financial assets are ArrowDebreu prices or, with continuous states, the stateprice density (SPD). We construct a nonparametric estimator for the SPD implicit in option prices and derive its asymptotic sampling theory. This estimator provides an arbitragefree metho ..."
Abstract

Cited by 334 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Implicit in the prices of traded financial assets are ArrowDebreu prices or, with continuous states, the stateprice density (SPD). We construct a nonparametric estimator for the SPD implicit in option prices and derive its asymptotic sampling theory. This estimator provides an arbitragefree method of pricing new, complex, or illiquid securities while capturing those features of the data that are most relevant from an assetpricing perspective, e.g., negative skewness and excess kurtosis for asset returns, volatility "smiles" for option prices. We perform Monte Carlo experiments and extract the SPD from actual S&P 500 option prices.
Correlation And Dependence In Risk Management: Properties And Pitfalls
 RISK MANAGEMENT: VALUE AT RISK AND BEYOND
, 1999
"... Modern risk management calls for an understanding of stochastic dependence going beyond simple linear correlation. This paper deals with the static (nontimedependent) case and emphasizes the copula representation of dependence for a random vector. Linear correlation is a natural dependence measure ..."
Abstract

Cited by 319 (37 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Modern risk management calls for an understanding of stochastic dependence going beyond simple linear correlation. This paper deals with the static (nontimedependent) case and emphasizes the copula representation of dependence for a random vector. Linear correlation is a natural dependence measure for multivariate normally and, more generally, elliptically distributed risks but other dependence concepts like comonotonicity and rank correlation should also be understood by the risk management practitioner. Using counterexamples the falsity of some commonly held views on correlation is demonstrated; in general, these fallacies arise from the naive assumption that dependence properties of the elliptical world also hold in the nonelliptical world. In particular, the problem of finding multivariate models which are consistent with prespecified marginal distributions and correlations is addressed. Pitfalls are highlighted and simulation algorithms avoiding these problems are constructed. ...
Capital markets research in accounting
, 2001
"... I review empirical research on the relation between capital markets and financial statements.The principal sources of demand for capital markets research in accounting are fundamental analysis and valuation, tests of market efficiency, and the role of accounting numbers in contracts and the politica ..."
Abstract

Cited by 279 (8 self)
 Add to MetaCart
I review empirical research on the relation between capital markets and financial statements.The principal sources of demand for capital markets research in accounting are fundamental analysis and valuation, tests of market efficiency, and the role of accounting numbers in contracts and the political process.The capital markets research topics of current interest to researchers include tests of market efficiency with respect to accounting information, fundamental analysis, and value relevance of financial reporting.Evidence from research on these topics is likely to be helpful in capital market investment decisions, accounting standard setting, and corporate financial
The distribution of realized stock return volatility
, 2001
"... We examine "realized" daily equity return volatilities and correlations obtained from highfrequency intraday transaction prices on individual stocks in the Dow Jones ..."
Abstract

Cited by 245 (21 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We examine "realized" daily equity return volatilities and correlations obtained from highfrequency intraday transaction prices on individual stocks in the Dow Jones
An Econometric Model of Serial Correlation and Illiquidity in Hedge Fund Returns
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 2004
"... The returns to hedge funds and other alternative investments are often highly serially correlated, in sharp contrast to the returns of more traditional investment vehicles such as longonly equity portfolios and mutual funds. In this paper, we explore several sources of such serial correlation and s ..."
Abstract

Cited by 222 (11 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The returns to hedge funds and other alternative investments are often highly serially correlated, in sharp contrast to the returns of more traditional investment vehicles such as longonly equity portfolios and mutual funds. In this paper, we explore several sources of such serial correlation and show that the most likely explanation is illiquidity exposure, i.e., investments in securities that are not actively traded and for which market prices are not always readily available. For portfolios of illiquid securities, reported returns will tend to be smoother than true economic returns, which will understate volatility and increase riskadjusted performance measures such as the Sharpe ratio. We propose an econometric model of illiquidity exposure and develop estimators for the smoothing profile as well as a smoothingadjusted Sharpe ratio. For a sample of 908 hedge funds drawn from the TASS database, we show that our estimated smoothing coefficients vary considerably across hedgefund style categories and may be a useful proxy for quantifying illiquidity exposure.
Theoretical and Empirical properties of Dynamic Conditional Correlation Multivariate GARCH
, 2001
"... In this paper, we develop the theoretical and empirical properties of a new class of multivariate GARCH models capable of estimating large timevarying covariance matrices, Dynamic Conditional Correlation Multivariate GARCH. We show that the problem of multivariate conditional variance estimation ca ..."
Abstract

Cited by 209 (11 self)
 Add to MetaCart
In this paper, we develop the theoretical and empirical properties of a new class of multivariate GARCH models capable of estimating large timevarying covariance matrices, Dynamic Conditional Correlation Multivariate GARCH. We show that the problem of multivariate conditional variance estimation can be simplified by estimating univariate GARCH models for each asset, and then, using transformed residuals resulting from the first stage, estimating a conditional correlation estimator. The standard errors for the first stage parameters remain consistent, and only the standard errors for the correlation parameters need be modified. We use the model to estimate the conditional covariance of up to 100 assets using S&P 500 Sector Indices and Dow Jones Industrial Average stocks, and conduct specification tests of the estimator using an industry standard benchmark for volatility models. This new estimator demonstrates very strong performance especially considering ease of implementation of the estimator.
Hedge Funds and the Technology Bubble
 THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE • VOL. LIX, NO. 5 • OCTOBER 2004
, 2004
"... This paper documents that hedge funds did not exert a correcting force on stock prices during the technology bubble. Instead, they were heavily invested in technology stocks. This does not seem to be the result of unawareness of the bubble: Hedge funds captured the upturn, but, by reducing their pos ..."
Abstract

Cited by 193 (10 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper documents that hedge funds did not exert a correcting force on stock prices during the technology bubble. Instead, they were heavily invested in technology stocks. This does not seem to be the result of unawareness of the bubble: Hedge funds captured the upturn, but, by reducing their positions in stocks that were about to decline, avoided much of the downturn. Our findings question the efficient markets notion that rational speculators always stabilize prices. They are consistent with models in which rational investors may prefer to ride bubbles because of predictable investor sentiment and limits to arbitrage.
Valuation Ratios and the LongRun Stock Market Outlook: An Update
 Journal of Portfolio Management
, 2001
"... The use of priceearnings ratios and dividendprice ratios as forecasting variables for the stock market is examined using aggregate annual US data 1871 to 2000 and aggregate quarterly data for twelve countries since 1970. Various simple efficientmarkets models of financial markets imply that ..."
Abstract

Cited by 183 (12 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The use of priceearnings ratios and dividendprice ratios as forecasting variables for the stock market is examined using aggregate annual US data 1871 to 2000 and aggregate quarterly data for twelve countries since 1970. Various simple efficientmarkets models of financial markets imply that these ratios should be useful in forecasting future dividend growth, future earnings growth, or future productivity growth. We conclude that, overall, the ratios do poorly in forecasting any of these.