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167
Shape Matching and Object Recognition Using Shape Contexts
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2001
"... We present a novel approach to measuring similarity between shapes and exploit it for object recognition. In our framework, the measurement of similarity is preceded by (1) solv ing for correspondences between points on the two shapes, (2) using the correspondences to estimate an aligning transform ..."
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Cited by 1246 (19 self)
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We present a novel approach to measuring similarity between shapes and exploit it for object recognition. In our framework, the measurement of similarity is preceded by (1) solv ing for correspondences between points on the two shapes, (2) using the correspondences to estimate an aligning transform. In order to solve the correspondence problem, we attach a descriptor, the shape context, to each point. The shape context at a reference point captures the distribution of the remaining points relative to it, thus offering a globally discriminative characterization. Corresponding points on two similar shapes will have similar shape con texts, enabling us to solve for correspondences as an optimal assignment problem. Given the point correspondences, we estimate the transformation that best aligns the two shapes; reg ularized thin plate splines provide a flexible class of transformation maps for this purpose. The dissimilarity between the two shapes is computed as a sum of matching errors between corresponding points, together with a term measuring the magnitude of the aligning trans form. We treat recognition in a nearestneighbor classification framework as the problem of finding the stored prototype shape that is maximally similar to that in the image. Results are presented for silhouettes, trademarks, handwritten digits and the COIL dataset.
Shock Graphs and Shape Matching
, 1998
"... We have been developing a theory for the generic representation of 2D shape, where structural descriptions are derived from the shocks (singularities) of a curve evolution process, acting on bounding contours. We now apply the theory to the problem of shape matching. The shocks are organized into a ..."
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Cited by 203 (32 self)
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We have been developing a theory for the generic representation of 2D shape, where structural descriptions are derived from the shocks (singularities) of a curve evolution process, acting on bounding contours. We now apply the theory to the problem of shape matching. The shocks are organized into a directed, acyclic shock graph, and complexity is managed by attending to the most significant (central) shape components first. The space of all such graphs is highly structured and can be characterized by the rules of a shock graph grammar. The grammar permits a reduction of a shock graph to a unique rooted shock tree. We introduce a novel tree matching algorithm which finds the best set of corresponding nodes between two shock trees in polynomial time. Using a diverse database of shapes, we demonstrate our system's performance under articulation, occlusion, and changes in viewpoint. Keywords: shape representation; shape matching; shock graph; shock graph grammar; subgraph isomorphism. 1 I...
Recovery of Parametric Models from Range Images: The Case for Superquadrics with Global Deformations
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1990
"... this paper, we introduce a method for recovery of compact volumetric models for single part objects. To solve the shape recovery problem in isolation from segmentation, we assume that only a single object is present in the scene at a time. Although we made this simplification to break up the problem ..."
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Cited by 189 (5 self)
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this paper, we introduce a method for recovery of compact volumetric models for single part objects. To solve the shape recovery problem in isolation from segmentation, we assume that only a single object is present in the scene at a time. Although we made this simplification to break up the problem, this assumption is still valid for some restricted environments [30]. We show that the shape of those objects can be recovered subject to the model's internal constraints. In this work we use a partic ular example of compact volumetric modelssuperquad ric primitives with parametric deformations. We introduce a leastsquares minimization method to recover model and deformation parameters using range data as the input. Range data enables us to study shape recovery independent of different passive techniques of obtaining depth data, such as depth from stereo, depth from focus, or depth from motion. The fitting function which we min imize is a cost or energy function whose value depends on the distance of points from the model's surface and on the overall size of the model. We show that the solution space, which can have more than one "deep" minimum or acceptable solution and many shallow local minima, can be searched efficiently with a gradient descent method. By using a stochastic technique, the procedure can escape from shallow local minima, and a particular solution among several acceptable solutions can be reached by searching in a constrained parameter subspace. The paper is organized as follows. Section II is on parametric models in computer vision, focusing on comparison of generalized cylinders and superquadrics. Section III explains superquadric models in detail. Section IV is about recovery of nondeformed superquadric models, and Section V is on recovery of defo...
ModelBased Recognition in Robot Vision
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1986
"... This paper presents a comparative study and survey of modelbased objectrecognition algorithms for robot vision. The goal of these algorithms is to recognize the identity, position, and orientation of randomly oriented industrial parts. In one form this is commonly referred to as the “binpicking ” ..."
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Cited by 161 (0 self)
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This paper presents a comparative study and survey of modelbased objectrecognition algorithms for robot vision. The goal of these algorithms is to recognize the identity, position, and orientation of randomly oriented industrial parts. In one form this is commonly referred to as the “binpicking ” problem, in which the parts to be recognized are presented in a jumbled bin. The paper is organized according to 2D, 2&D, and 3D object representations, which are used as the basis for the recognition algorithms. Three
Local Feature View Clustering for 3D Object Recognition
 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
, 2001
"... There have been important recent advances in object recognition through the matching of invariant local image features. However, the existing approaches are based on matching to individual training images. This paper presents a method for combining multiple images of a 3D object into a single model ..."
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Cited by 110 (6 self)
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There have been important recent advances in object recognition through the matching of invariant local image features. However, the existing approaches are based on matching to individual training images. This paper presents a method for combining multiple images of a 3D object into a single model representation. This provides for recognition of 3D objects from any viewpoint, the generalization of models to nonrigid changes, and improved robustness through the combination of features acquired under a range of imaging conditions. The decision of whether to cluster a training image into an existing view representation or to treat it as a new view is based on the geometric accuracy of the match to previous model views. A new probabilistic model is developed to reduce the false positive matches that would otherwise arise due to loosened geometric constraints on matching 3D and nonrigid models. A system has been developed based on these approaches that is able to robustly recognize 3D objects in cluttered natural images in subsecond times.
Visibility, Occlusion, and the Aspect Graph
, 1987
"... In this paper we study the ways in which the topology of the image of a polyhedron changes with changing viewpoint. We catalog the ways that the topological appearance, or aspect, can change. This enables us to find maximal regions of viewpoints of the same aspect. We use these techniques to constru ..."
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Cited by 88 (7 self)
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In this paper we study the ways in which the topology of the image of a polyhedron changes with changing viewpoint. We catalog the ways that the topological appearance, or aspect, can change. This enables us to find maximal regions of viewpoints of the same aspect. We use these techniques to construct the viewpoint space partition (VSP), a partition of viewpoint space into maximal regions of constant aspect, and its dual, the aspect graph. In this paper we present tight bounds on the maximum size of the VSP and the aspect graph and give algorithms for their construction, first in the convex case and then in the general case. In particular, we give bounds on the maximum size of Q(n 2 ) and Q (n 6 ) under an orthographic projection viewing model and of Q(n 3 ) and Q(n 9 ) under a perspective viewing model. The algorithms make use of a new representation of the appearance of polyhedra from all viewpoints, called the aspect representation or asp. We believe that this representation...
Modelling and interpretation of architecture from several images
"... The modelling of 3dimensional (3D) environments has become a requirement for many applications in engineering design, virtual reality, visualisation and entertainment. However the scale and complexity demanded from such models has risen to the point where the acquisition of 3D models can require a ..."
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Cited by 83 (6 self)
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The modelling of 3dimensional (3D) environments has become a requirement for many applications in engineering design, virtual reality, visualisation and entertainment. However the scale and complexity demanded from such models has risen to the point where the acquisition of 3D models can require a vast amount of specialist time and equipment. Because of this much research has been undertaken in the computer vision community into automating all or part of the process of acquiring a 3D model from a sequence of images. This thesis focuses specifically on the automatic acquisition of architectural models from short image sequences. An architectural model is defined as a set of planes corresponding to walls which contain a variety of labelled primitives such as doors and windows. As well as a label defining its type, each primitive contains parameters defining its shape and texture. The key advantage of this representation is that the model defines not only geometry and texture, but also an interpretation of the scene. This is crucial as it enables reasoning about the scene; for instance, structure and texture can be inferred in areas of the model which are unseen in any
Computing Exact Aspect Graphs of Curved Objects: Algebraic Surfaces
"... This paper presents an algorithm for computing the exact aspect graph of an opaque solid bounded by a smooth algebraic surface and observed under orthographic projection. The algorithm uses curve tracing, cell decomposition, and ray tracing to construct the regions of the view sphere delineated by ..."
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Cited by 81 (10 self)
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This paper presents an algorithm for computing the exact aspect graph of an opaque solid bounded by a smooth algebraic surface and observed under orthographic projection. The algorithm uses curve tracing, cell decomposition, and ray tracing to construct the regions of the view sphere delineated by visual events. It has been fully implemented, and examples are presented.
Is Human Object Recognition Better Described By GeonStructuralDescriptions Or By MultipleViews?
, 1995
"... Is human object recognition viewpoint dependent or viewpointinvariant under #everyday " conditions? Biederman and Gerhardstein #1993# argue that viewpointinvariant mechanisms are used almost exclusively.However, our analysis indicates that: 1# their conditions for immediate viewpointinvariance lack ..."
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Cited by 80 (14 self)
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Is human object recognition viewpoint dependent or viewpointinvariant under #everyday " conditions? Biederman and Gerhardstein #1993# argue that viewpointinvariant mechanisms are used almost exclusively.However, our analysis indicates that: 1# their conditions for immediate viewpointinvariance lack the generalitytocharacterize a wide range of recognition phenomena; 2# the extensive body of viewpointdependent results cannot be dismissed as processing #byproducts" or #experimental artifacts"; 3# geon structural descriptions cannot coherently account for category recognition, the domain they are intended to explain. We conclude that the weight of current evidence supports an exemplarbased multipleviews mechanism as an important component of both exemplarspeci#c and categorical recognition. # Many of the ideas in this paper were developed during visits by MJT to the Max#Planck#Institut f#ur biologische Kybernetik in T#ubingen, Germany.We thank Dan Kersten for his insightful comments...