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Combining effects: sum and tensor
"... We seek a unified account of modularity for computational effects. We begin by reformulating Moggi’s monadic paradigm for modelling computational effects using the notion of enriched Lawvere theory, together with its relationship with strong monads; this emphasises the importance of the operations ..."
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We seek a unified account of modularity for computational effects. We begin by reformulating Moggi’s monadic paradigm for modelling computational effects using the notion of enriched Lawvere theory, together with its relationship with strong monads; this emphasises the importance of the operations that produce the effects. Effects qua theories are then combined by appropriate bifunctors on the category of theories. We give a theory for the sum of computational effects, which in particular yields Moggi’s exceptions monad transformer and an interactive input/output monad transformer. We further give a theory of the commutative combination of effects, their tensor, which yields Moggi’s sideeffects monad transformer. Finally we give a theory of operation transformers, for redefining operations when adding new effects; we derive explicit forms for the operation transformers associated to the above monad transformers.
The microcosm principle and concurrency in coalgebras
 I. HASUO, B. JACOBS, AND A. SOKOLOVA
, 2008
"... Coalgebras are categorical presentations of statebased systems. In investigating parallel composition of coalgebras (realizing concurrency), we observe that the same algebraic theory is interpreted in two different domains in a nested manner, namely: in the category of coalgebras, and in the final ..."
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Cited by 11 (8 self)
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Coalgebras are categorical presentations of statebased systems. In investigating parallel composition of coalgebras (realizing concurrency), we observe that the same algebraic theory is interpreted in two different domains in a nested manner, namely: in the category of coalgebras, and in the final coalgebra as an object in it. This phenomenon is what Baez and Dolan have called the microcosm principle, a prototypical example of which is “a monoid in a monoidal category.” In this paper we obtain a formalization of the microcosm principle in which such a nested model is expressed categorically as a suitable lax natural transformation. An application of this account is a general compositionality result which supports modular verification of complex systems.
Coalgebraic Components in a ManySorted Microcosm
"... Abstract. The microcosm principle, advocated by Baez and Dolan and formalized for Lawvere theories lately by three of the authors, has been applied to coalgebras in order to describe compositional behavior systematically. Here we further illustrate the usefulness of the approach by extending it to a ..."
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Cited by 6 (3 self)
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Abstract. The microcosm principle, advocated by Baez and Dolan and formalized for Lawvere theories lately by three of the authors, has been applied to coalgebras in order to describe compositional behavior systematically. Here we further illustrate the usefulness of the approach by extending it to a manysorted setting. Then we can show that the coalgebraic component calculi of Barbosa are examples, with compositionality of behavior following from microcosm structure. The algebraic structure on these coalgebraic components corresponds to variants of Hughes’ notion of arrow, introduced to organize computations in functional programming. 1
Computing Critical Pairs in 2Dimensional Rewriting Systems
, 2010
"... Rewriting systems on words are very useful in the study of monoids. In good cases, they give finite presentations of the monoids, allowing their manipulation by a computer. Even better, when the presentation is confluent and terminating, they provide one with a notion of canonical representative for ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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Rewriting systems on words are very useful in the study of monoids. In good cases, they give finite presentations of the monoids, allowing their manipulation by a computer. Even better, when the presentation is confluent and terminating, they provide one with a notion of canonical representative for the elements of the presented monoid. Polygraphs are a higherdimensional generalization of this notion of presentation, from the setting of monoids to the much more general setting of ncategories. Here, we are interested in proving confluence for polygraphs presenting 2categories, which can be seen as a generalization of termrewriting systems. For this purpose, we propose an adaptation of the usual algorithm for computing critical pairs. Interestingly, this framework is much richer than term rewriting systems and requires the elaboration of a new theoretical framework for representing critical pairs, based on contexts in compact 2categories. Term rewriting systems have proven very useful to reason about terms modulo equations. In some cases, the equations can be oriented and completed in a way giving rise to a normalizing (i.e. confluent and terminating) rewriting system, thus providing a notion of canonical representative of equivalence classes of terms. Usually, terms are freely generated by a signature (Σn)n∈N, which consists of a family of sets Σn of generators of arity n, and one considers equational theories on such a signature, which are formalized by sets of pairs of terms called equations. For example, the equational theory of monoids contains two generators m and e, whose arities are respectively 2 and 0, and three equations
ALGEBRAIC CATEGORIES WHOSE PROJECTIVES ARE EXPLICITLY FREE
"... Abstract. Let M = (M, m, u) be a monad and let (MX, m) be the free Malgebra on the object X. Consider an Malgebra (A, a), a retraction r: (MX, m) → (A, a) and a section t: (A, a) → (MX, m) of r. The retract (A, a) is not free in general. We observe that for many monads with a ‘combinatorial flav ..."
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Abstract. Let M = (M, m, u) be a monad and let (MX, m) be the free Malgebra on the object X. Consider an Malgebra (A, a), a retraction r: (MX, m) → (A, a) and a section t: (A, a) → (MX, m) of r. The retract (A, a) is not free in general. We observe that for many monads with a ‘combinatorial flavor ’ such a retract is not only a free algebra (MA0, m), but it is also the case that the object A0 of generators is determined in a canonical way by the section t. We give a precise form of this property, prove a characterization, and discuss examples from combinatorics, universal algebra, convexity and topos theory. 1.
FirstOrder Logical Duality
, 2008
"... Generalizing Stone duality for Boolean algebras, an adjunction between Boolean coherent categories—representing firstorder syntax—and certain topological groupoids—representing semantics—is constructed. The embedding of a Boolean algebra into a frame of open sets of a space of 2valued models is re ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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Generalizing Stone duality for Boolean algebras, an adjunction between Boolean coherent categories—representing firstorder syntax—and certain topological groupoids—representing semantics—is constructed. The embedding of a Boolean algebra into a frame of open sets of a space of 2valued models is replaced by an embedding of a Boolean coherent category, B, into a topos of equivariant sheaves on a topological groupoid of setvalued models and isomorphisms between them. The latter is a groupoid representation of the topos of coherent sheaves on B, analogously to how the Stone space of a Boolean algebra is a spatial representation of the ideal completion of the algebra, and the category B can then be recovered from its semantical groupoid, up to pretopos completion. By equipping the groupoid of sets and bijections with a particular topology, one obtains a particular topological groupoid which plays a role analogous to that of the discrete space 2, in being the dual of the object classifier and the object one ‘homs into ’ to recover a Boolean coherent category from its semantical groupoid. Both parts of the adjunction, then, consist of ‘homming into sets’, similarly to how both parts of the equivalence between Boolean algebras and Stone spaces consist of ‘homming into 2’. By slicing over this groupoid (modified to display an alternative setup), Chapter 3 shows how the adjunction specializes to the case of firstorder single sorted logic to yield an adjunction between such theories and an independently characterized slice category of topological groupoids such that the counit component at a theory is an isomorphism. Acknowledgements I would like, first and foremost, to thank my supervisor Steve Awodey. I would like to thank the members of the committee: Jeremy Avigad, Lars
The Structure of FirstOrder Causality
"... Game semantics describe the interactive behavior of proofs by interpreting formulas as games on which proofs induce strategies. Such a semantics is introduced here for capturing dependencies induced by quantifications in firstorder propositional logic. One of the main difficulties that has to be fac ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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Game semantics describe the interactive behavior of proofs by interpreting formulas as games on which proofs induce strategies. Such a semantics is introduced here for capturing dependencies induced by quantifications in firstorder propositional logic. One of the main difficulties that has to be faced during the elaboration of this kind of semantics is to characterize definable strategies, that is strategies which actually behave like a proof. This is usually done by restricting the model to strategies satisfying subtle combinatorial conditions, whose preservation under composition is often difficult to show. Here, we present an original methodology to achieve this task, which requires to combine advanced tools from game semantics, rewriting theory and categorical algebra. We introduce a diagrammatic presentation of the monoidal category of definable strategies of our model, by the means of generators and relations: those strategies can be generated from a finite set of atomic strategies and the equality between strategies admits a finite axiomatization, this equational structure corresponding to a polarized variation of the notion of bialgebra. This work thus bridges algebra and denotational semantics in order to reveal the structure of dependencies induced by firstorder quantifiers, and lays the foundations for a mechanized analysis of causality in programming languages. Denotational semantics were introduced to provide useful abstract invariants of proofs and programs modulo cutelimination or reduction. In particular, game semantics, introduced in the nineties, have been very successful in capturing precisely the interactive behaviour of programs. In these semantics, every type is interpreted as a game (that is as a set of moves that can be played during the game) together with the rules of the game (formalized by a partial order on the moves of the game indicating the dependencies between them). Every move is to be played by one of the two players, called Proponent and Opponent, who should be thought respectively as the program and its environment. A program is characterized by the sequences of moves that it can exchange with its environment during an
Extended TQFT’s and Quantum Gravity
, 2007
"... Abstract. This paper gives a definition of an extended topological quantum field theory (TQFT) as a weak 2functor Z: nCob2→2Vect, by analogy with the description of a TQFT as a functor Z: nCob→Vect. We also show how to obtain such a theory from any finite group G. This theory is related to a topolo ..."
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Abstract. This paper gives a definition of an extended topological quantum field theory (TQFT) as a weak 2functor Z: nCob2→2Vect, by analogy with the description of a TQFT as a functor Z: nCob→Vect. We also show how to obtain such a theory from any finite group G. This theory is related to a topological gauge theory, the DijkgraafWitten model. To give this definition rigorously, we first define a bicategory of cobordisms between cobordisms. We also give some explicit description of a highercategorical version of Vect, denoted 2Vect, a bicategory of 2vector spaces. Along the way, we prove several results showing how to construct 2vector spaces of Vectvalued presheaves on certain kinds of groupoids. In particular, we use the case when these are groupoids whose objects are connections, and whose morphisms are gauge transformations, on the manifolds on which the extended TQFT is to be defined. On cobordisms between these manifolds, we show how a construction of “pullback and pushforward ” of presheaves gives both the morphisms and 2morphisms in 2Vect for the extended TQFT, and that these
Computing Critical Pairs in Polygraphs
 In Workshop on Computer Algebra Methods and Commutativity of Algebraic Diagrams (CAMCAD
, 2009
"... Polygraphs generalize to 2categories the usual notion of equational theory, by describing them as quotients, modulo equations, of freely generated 2categories on a given set of generators. In order to work with morphisms modulo the equations, it is often convenient to orient the equations into a c ..."
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Polygraphs generalize to 2categories the usual notion of equational theory, by describing them as quotients, modulo equations, of freely generated 2categories on a given set of generators. In order to work with morphisms modulo the equations, it is often convenient to orient the equations into a confluent rewriting system. In the case of a terminating system, confluence can be checked by showing that critical pairs are joinable. However, the computation of the critical pairs is more complicated for polygraphs than for term rewriting systems: in particular, two left members of a rule don’t necessarily have a finite number of unifiers. We advocate here that a more general notion of rewriting system should be considered instead, and introduce an operad of compact contexts in a 2category, in which two rules have a finite number of unifiers. A concrete representation of contexts is proposed, as well as an unification algorithm for these.
COMPARATIVE SMOOTHEOLOGY
"... Abstract. We compare various different definitions of “the category of smooth objects”. The definitions compared are due to Chen, Frölicher, Sikorski, Smith, and Souriau. The method of comparison is to construct functors between the categories that enable us to see how the categories relate to each ..."
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Abstract. We compare various different definitions of “the category of smooth objects”. The definitions compared are due to Chen, Frölicher, Sikorski, Smith, and Souriau. The method of comparison is to construct functors between the categories that enable us to see how the categories relate to each other. Our method of study involves finding a general context into which these categories can be placed. This involves considering categories wherein objects are considered in relation to a certain collection of standard test objects. This therefore applies beyond the question of categories of smooth spaces. 1.