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45
Notions of Computation and Monads
, 1991
"... The i.calculus is considered a useful mathematical tool in the study of programming languages, since programs can be identified with Iterms. However, if one goes further and uses bnconversion to prove equivalence of programs, then a gross simplification is introduced (programs are identified with ..."
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Cited by 884 (16 self)
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The i.calculus is considered a useful mathematical tool in the study of programming languages, since programs can be identified with Iterms. However, if one goes further and uses bnconversion to prove equivalence of programs, then a gross simplification is introduced (programs are identified with total functions from calues to values) that may jeopardise the applicability of theoretical results, In this paper we introduce calculi. based on a categorical semantics for computations, that provide a correct basis for proving equivalence of programs for a wide range of notions of computation.
The Tile Model
 PROOF, LANGUAGE AND INTERACTION: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF ROBIN MILNER
, 1996
"... In this paper we introduce a model for a wide class of computational systems, whose behaviour can be described by certain rewriting rules. We gathered our inspiration both from the world of term rewriting, in particular from the rewriting logic framework [Mes92], and of concurrency theory: among the ..."
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Cited by 74 (27 self)
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In this paper we introduce a model for a wide class of computational systems, whose behaviour can be described by certain rewriting rules. We gathered our inspiration both from the world of term rewriting, in particular from the rewriting logic framework [Mes92], and of concurrency theory: among the others, the structured operational semantics [Plo81], the context systems [LX90] and the structured transition systems [CM92] approaches. Our model recollects many properties of these sources: first, it provides a compositional way to describe both the states and the sequences of transitions performed by a given system, stressing their distributed nature. Second, a suitable notion of typed proof allows to take into account also those formalisms relying on the notions of synchronization and sideeffects to determine the actual behaviour of a system. Finally, an equivalence relation over sequences of transitions is defined, equipping the system under analysis with a concurrent semantics, ...
A 2Categorical Presentation of Term Graph Rewriting
 CATEGORY THEORY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE, VOLUME 1290 OF LNCS
, 1997
"... It is wellknown that a term rewriting system can be faithfully described by a cartesian 2category, where horizontal arrows represent terms, and cells represent rewriting sequences. In this paper we propose a similar, original 2categorical presentation for term graph rewriting. Building on a re ..."
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Cited by 39 (19 self)
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It is wellknown that a term rewriting system can be faithfully described by a cartesian 2category, where horizontal arrows represent terms, and cells represent rewriting sequences. In this paper we propose a similar, original 2categorical presentation for term graph rewriting. Building on a result presented in [8], which shows that term graphs over a given signature are in onetoone correspondence with arrows of a gsmonoidal category freely generated from the signature, we associate with a term graph rewriting system a gsmonoidal 2category, and show that cells faithfully represent its rewriting sequences. We exploit the categorical framework to relate term graph rewriting and term rewriting, since gsmonoidal (2)categories can be regarded as "weak" cartesian (2)categories, where certain (2)naturality axioms have been dropped.
An Algebraic Presentation of Term Graphs, via GSMonoidal Categories
 Applied Categorical Structures
, 1999
"... . We present a categorical characterisation of term graphs (i.e., finite, directed acyclic graphs labeled over a signature) that parallels the wellknown characterisation of terms as arrows of the algebraic theory of a given signature (i.e., the free Cartesian category generated by it). In particula ..."
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Cited by 39 (25 self)
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. We present a categorical characterisation of term graphs (i.e., finite, directed acyclic graphs labeled over a signature) that parallels the wellknown characterisation of terms as arrows of the algebraic theory of a given signature (i.e., the free Cartesian category generated by it). In particular, we show that term graphs over a signature \Sigma are onetoone with the arrows of the free gsmonoidal category generated by \Sigma. Such a category satisfies all the axioms for Cartesian categories but for the naturality of two transformations (the discharger ! and the duplicator r), providing in this way an abstract and clear relationship between terms and term graphs. In particular, the absence of the naturality of r and ! has a precise interpretation in terms of explicit sharing and of loss of implicit garbage collection, respectively. Keywords: algebraic theories, directed acyclic graphs, gsmonoidal categories, symmetric monoidal categories, term graphs. Mathematical Subject Clas...
The Category Theoretic Understanding of Universal Algebra: Lawvere Theories and Monads
, 2007
"... Lawvere theories and monads have been the two main category theoretic formulations of universal algebra, Lawvere theories arising in 1963 and the connection with monads being established a few years later. Monads, although mathematically the less direct and less malleable formulation, rapidly gained ..."
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Cited by 35 (1 self)
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Lawvere theories and monads have been the two main category theoretic formulations of universal algebra, Lawvere theories arising in 1963 and the connection with monads being established a few years later. Monads, although mathematically the less direct and less malleable formulation, rapidly gained precedence. A generation later, the definition of monad began to appear extensively in theoretical computer science in order to model computational effects, without reference to universal algebra. But since then, the relevance of universal algebra to computational effects has been recognised, leading to renewed prominence of the notion of Lawvere theory, now in a computational setting. This development has formed a major part of Gordon Plotkin’s mature work, and we study its history here, in particular asking why Lawvere theories were eclipsed by monads in the 1960’s, and how the renewed interest in them in a computer science setting might develop in future.
Process and Term Tile Logic
, 1998
"... In a similar way as 2categories can be regarded as a special case of double categories, rewriting logic (in the unconditional case) can be embedded into the more general tile logic, where also sideeffects and rewriting synchronization are considered. Since rewriting logic is the semantic basis o ..."
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Cited by 34 (25 self)
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In a similar way as 2categories can be regarded as a special case of double categories, rewriting logic (in the unconditional case) can be embedded into the more general tile logic, where also sideeffects and rewriting synchronization are considered. Since rewriting logic is the semantic basis of several language implementation efforts, it is useful to map tile logic back into rewriting logic in a conservative way, to obtain executable specifications of tile systems. We extend the results of earlier work by two of the authors, focusing on some interesting cases where the mathematical structures representing configurations (i.e., states) and effects (i.e., observable actions) are very similar, in the sense that they have in common some auxiliary structure (e.g., for tupling, projecting, etc.). In particular, we give in full detail the descriptions of two such cases where (net) processlike and usual term structures are employed. Corresponding to these two cases, we introduce two ca...
A Syntactic Approach to Modularity in Denotational Semantics
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON CATEGORY THEORY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1993
"... This paper proposes a syntactic reformulation of the modular approach to Denotational Semantics in [Mog89a, Mog91a]. This reformulation is based on a duality between model constructions and translations of theories (often called relative interpretations), analogous to GabrielUlmer duality. To de ..."
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Cited by 33 (5 self)
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This paper proposes a syntactic reformulation of the modular approach to Denotational Semantics in [Mog89a, Mog91a]. This reformulation is based on a duality between model constructions and translations of theories (often called relative interpretations), analogous to GabrielUlmer duality. To demonstrate the simplicity and usability of the syntactic reformulation, we give a sample of theories and translations, which can be used to give semantics to concurrent languages (via translation into suitable metalanguages).
Notes on Sconing and Relators
, 1993
"... This paper describes a semantics of typed lambda calculi based on relations. The main mathematical tool is a categorytheoretic method of sconing, also called glueing or Freyd covers. Its correspondence to logical relations is also examined. 1 Introduction Many modern programming languages feature ..."
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Cited by 30 (0 self)
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This paper describes a semantics of typed lambda calculi based on relations. The main mathematical tool is a categorytheoretic method of sconing, also called glueing or Freyd covers. Its correspondence to logical relations is also examined. 1 Introduction Many modern programming languages feature rather sophisticated typing mechanisms. In particular, languages such as ML include polymorphic data types, which allow considerable programming flexibility. Several notions of polymorphism were introduced into computer science by Strachey [Str67], among them the important notion of parametric polymorphism. Strachey's intuitive definition is that a polymorphic function is parametric if it has a uniformly given algorithm in all types, that is, if the function's behavior is independent of the type at which the function is instantiated. Reynolds [Rey83] proposed a mathematical definition of parametric polymorphic functions by means of invariance with respect to certain relations induced by typ...
On an interpretation of second order quantification in first order intuitionistic propositional logic
 JOURNAL OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC, 57: 33 { 52
, 1992
"... We prove the following surprising property of Heyting's intuitionistic propositional calculus, IpC. Consider the collection of formulas, , built up from propositional variables (p; q; r; : ::) and falsity (?) using conjunction (^), disjunction (_) and implication (!). Write ` to indicate that s ..."
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Cited by 28 (0 self)
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We prove the following surprising property of Heyting's intuitionistic propositional calculus, IpC. Consider the collection of formulas, , built up from propositional variables (p; q; r; : ::) and falsity (?) using conjunction (^), disjunction (_) and implication (!). Write ` to indicate that such a formula is intuitionistically valid. We show that for each variable p and formula there exists a formula Ap (e ectively computable from), containing only variables not equal to p which occur in, and such that for all formulas not involving p, ` ! Ap if and only if ` !. Consequently quanti cation over propositional variables can be modelled in IpC, and there is an interpretation of the second order propositional calculus, IpC2, in IpC which restricts to the identity on rst order propositions. An immediate corollary is the strengthening of the usual Interpolation Theorem for IpC to the statement that there are least and greatest interpolant formulas for any given pair of formulas. The result also has a number of interesting consequences for the algebraic counterpart of IpC, the theory of Heyting algebras. In particular we show that a model of IpC² can be constructed whose algebra of truthvalues is equal to any given Heyting algebra.
Cubical Sets And Their Site
 Theory Appl. Categ
, 2003
"... Extended cubical sets (with connections and interchanges) are presheaves on a ground category, the extended cubical site K, corresponding to the (augmented) simplicial site, the category of finite ordinals. We prove here that K has characterisations similar to the classical ones for the simplicia ..."
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Cited by 25 (3 self)
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Extended cubical sets (with connections and interchanges) are presheaves on a ground category, the extended cubical site K, corresponding to the (augmented) simplicial site, the category of finite ordinals. We prove here that K has characterisations similar to the classical ones for the simplicial analogue, by generators and relations, or by the existence of a universal symmetric cubical monoid ; in fact, K is the classifying category of a monoidal algebraic theory of such monoids. Analogous results are given for the restricted cubical site I of ordinary cubical sets (just faces and degeneracies) and for the intermediate site J (including connections). We also consider briefly the reversible analogue, !K.